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A Summary Of Islamic Jurisprudence 2 – Book Sample
The Virtues of Understanding Religion
All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his household, his Companions. and whoever follows their example with good conduct until the Day of Recompense.
To commence, understanding the religion is considered one of the best deeds, and a sign of goodness. The Prophet (PBUH) says:
“If Allah wants to do good for a person, He makes him understand the religion.”‘
This is because comprehending the religion leads to useful knowledge upon which righteous deeds depend. Allah, Exalted be He, says:
“It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth … ” (Qur’an: Al-Fath: 28)
“Guidance” here refers to useful knowledge, and “the religion of truth” is that which leads to righteous deeds. Besides. Allah commanded the Prophet (PBUH) to invoke him for more knowledge; Allah, Exalted be He. said:
‘ .. And say, ‘My Lord, increase me in knowledge.’ “
(Qur’an: Taha: 114)
seeking more knowledge again
AI-Hafit lbn Hajar comments that the aforesaid Qur’anic verse,” … And say, Lord, increase me in knowledge,'” is a clear indication of the merit and excellence of knowledge, for Allah never commanded His Prophet (PBUH) to invoke Him for more of anything other than knowledge’. Tihe Prophet (PBUH) used to refer to the assemblies wherein useful knowledge is taught as “The Gardens of Paradise,” and he (PBUH) stated that “Men of knowledge are the inheritors of prophets.”
There is no doubt that before one starts doing something one should know how to perform it in the best way, so as to perform it well to harvest its desired fruits. Likewise, it is by no means reasonable that one starts worshipping one’s Lord – the way through which one’s salvation from Hellfire and admittance to Paradise are gained – without having due knowledge.
categories regarding knowledge
As such, people are divided into three categories regarding knowledge and deeds:
The first category
is represented in those who combine useful knowledge along with righteous deeds. Those are the ones whom Allah has guided to the straight path; the path of those upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous, and excellent indeed are these as companions.
The second category
is represented in those who learn useful knowledge but do not act accordingly. Those are the ones who have evoked Allah’s anger, like the Jews and whoever follows their footsteps.
The third category
is represented in those who act without having knowledge. Those are the ones who are astray, namely the Christians and their likes.
These three categories are mentioned in the Surah of AI-Fatihah (the Opening Chapter of the Quran), which we recite in every rak ‘ah (unit of prayer) of our prayers:
“Guide us to the straight path – the path of those upon whom Yo11 /rave bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.” (Qur’an: Al-Fatihah: 6-7)
In his interpretation of the aforesaid verses of the Surah of Al-Fatih, Sheikh Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdul-Walih.ib (may Allah have mercy on him) has stated:
effects of not acting upon knowledge
“The scholars meant in the verse that reads, ‘those who have evoked (Allah’s) anger’ are those who do not act in accordance with their knowledge, and–those who are astray’ are the ones who act without knowledge. The former is the quality of the Jews, while the latter is that of the Christians. Some ignorant people mistakenly believe tl1at those two qualities are restricted to the Jews and the Christians, forgetting that Allah commands them to recite the above-mentioned Quranic invocation seeking refuge with Him from being one of the
“The scholars meant in the verse that reads, ‘those who have evoked (Allah’s) anger’ are those who do not act in accordance with their knowledge, and–those who are astray’ are the ones who act without knowledge. The former is the quality of the Jews, while the latter is that of the Christians. Some ignorant people mistakenly believe tl1at those two qualities are restricted to the Jews and the Christins, forgetting that Allah commands them to recite the above-mentioned Qurlmic invocation seeking refuge with Him from being one of the
Obligation of reciting Al-Fatihah- SUMMARY OF ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE 2
This shows the wisdom behind the obligation of reciting this great Surah (i.e., Al-Fatihah) in every rak ‘ah of our prayers (whether obligatory or supererogatory). It is because this surah contains many great secrets, among them is the great Qur’anic invocation that reads, “Guide us to the straight path – the path of those upon whom You: have bestowed favor, not of’ those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray!’ (Qur’an: AI-Fatihah: 6-7)
Through this invocation, we ask Allah to guide us to follow the conduct and the way of the people who have useful knowledge and perform righteous deeds, which is the way to salvation in both this world and the Hereafter. We also invoke Him to safeguard us from the pathway of the ones astray, who have neglected either the righteous deeds or the useful knowledge.
Thus, we could argue that useful knowledge is that derived from the Qur’an and the S1m11ah (Prophetic Tradition). It is gained by means of deep understanding and comprehension of both, which can be achieved through the help of religious instructors or scholars.
This can also be achieved through the books of exegesis of the Qur’an and those of Hadith, as well as the books of jurisprudence and those of Arabic grammar – the language in which the Qur’an has been revealed. Such books are the best means of comprehending the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
Be aware of your religion – SUMMARY OF ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE 2
So as to perform the acts of worship so perfectly, you should, dear Muslim brother, learn what leads to the perfection of your performance of these various acts of worship, such as Prayer, Fasting and Hajj (Pilgrimage). You should also be aware of the rulings on Zakat • as well as the rulings on the dealings that concern you, so as to make use of what Allah has made lawful for you and avoid what He has made unlawful. You should observe this to ensure that the money you earn and the food you eat are lawfully obtained, in order to be one of those whose supplications are granted by Allah. In fact, you have to know about all these matters, and this could be easily achieved, Allah willing, provided that you have resolute determination and sincere intention. So, be keen on reading useful relevant books, and keep in touch with religious scholars to ask them about whatever ruling you are in doubt about and to be acquainted with the rulings of your religion.
Trade Transactions – SUMMARY OF ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE 2
Allah, in His Noble Book, the Qur’an, and the Prophet (PBUH) through his honorable Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), pointed out the rulings on transactions because of people’s need for them; people in general need food, clothe, houses, vehicles and other necessities of life in addition to different luxuries which are obtained through trade.
Trade is permissible according to the Qur’an, Sunnah, consensus of Muslim scholars, and analogical deduction.
”. .. but Allah, has permitted trade … ” (Qur’an: AI-Baqarah: 275) And:
“There is 110 blame upo11 you for seeking bounty from your Lord (duri11g Hajj) … ” (Qur’an: AI-Baqarah: 198)
The Prophet (PBUH) said:
“The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted. If both parties speak the truth and point out the defects and qualities (of the goods), then they will be blessed in their transaction. But if they tell lies or hide something, then the blessings of their transaction will be destroyed.”‘
Muslim scholars uniformly agree on the permissibility of trade in general.
Concerning analogical deduction, trade transactions are permissible because people’s needs are interdependent, and people grant nothing for nothing. A person does not give what he has, money or goods, in return for nothing, so wisdom necessitates the permissibility of trade in order to enable people to get their needs.
Trade transactions can be validated by means of a verbal formula or an actual, one. The verbal formula expresses the seller’s verbal agreement on the sale when he, for example, says to the buyer, “Well, I sell it to you” and the buyer’s verbal acceptance when he, for example, says, “And I buy it”. The actual formula is the act of exchange itself, when the seller is given the usual price and the buyer takes the commodity, without any verbal declaration.
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