Glossary Of Islamic Terms – Book Sample
GLOSSARY OF ISLAMIC TERMS
Glossary of Islamic terms
معجم المصطلحات الاسلامية
‘Abasa “He frowned”
. The blind man that is referred to in this surah is Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoum. Surah 80 of the Holy Qur’an.
The Abbasid Caliphs (132-656 A.H./750-1259 A.D.)
They assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace their lineage to Al-`Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle.
After half a century of secret arrangements, the Abbasid Revolution began in Khurasan under the leadership of Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, 130 A.H./748 A.D.
During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all aspects of life. Their first Caliph was Abu Al-`Abbas Al-Saffah.
He was followed by Abu Ja’far Al-Mansur who ended the revolutionary period, reaffirmed their rule and established Baghdad, the capital, which witnessed a scientific, cultural and literary renaissance that stretched throughout the Middle Centuries. Unfortunately, the state eventually began to decline and suffer from weakness and decentralization.
Many petty states emerged such as the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Fatimids. The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Al-Musta’sim, the last caliph, was killed by Hulegu.
التنحي عن العرش
عبد المطلب Abdul Muttalib
‘Abdul Muttalib was the nickname of the grandfather of Muhammad S.
Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad S was the chief of Makkah and also a caretaker of the Ka’bah. Through his trading caravans, he had brought prosperity to Makkah.
He had made Makkah the trading capital of Arabia. During one of his business trips, caravan of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf stopped at Yathrib (Madinah). There, he married Salma bint Amr of the local Najjar tribe.
A few days after his marriage, Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf continued on his business trip. During that journey, he fell sick and died of his illness.
His fellow travelers buried him in Ghaza. A few months after the death of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf, his widow Salma gave birth to his son.
That boy was named “Amr bin Hashim, but everyone called him Shaybah (Old man) because he had a bunch of white hair at birth. Back in Makkah, Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf, a younger brother of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf assumed the responsibilities of the offices of the Ka’bah after him.
By chance, Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf found out that his nephew, son of his elder brother Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf, was growing up in Yathrib (Madinah) with his mother and maternal uncles.
Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf decided to return the wealth of Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf to his son Shaybah. Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf traveled to Yathrib (Madinah) to bring his nephew back to Makkah. After initial hesitation Salma agreed to send her son to Makkah with his uncle Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf. On their way to Makkah, Shaybah was riding ahead of Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf.
In those days, usually servants rode ahead of their masters. When people of Makkah saw Shaybah riding ahead of Al Muttalib, they mistook him as a servant of Al Muttalib. That is why they