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Hadith Literature pdf download

Book Title Hadith Literature
Book AuthorInternational Open University
Total Pages47
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Hadith Literature – Book Sample


The beginnings 

The beginning of hadith literature must be traced back to the letters, laws and treaties which were dictated by the Prophet of Islam himself, and were preserved in his time.

In like manner, it must be traced to the numerous Sahifus which were compiled by the Companions and the Followers, to which reference has already been made in this work.

Goldziher has mentioned several of these Sahifas.

 Horovitz is uncertain about the genuineness of the Sahifas ascribed to the Companions, but he has no doubt about the genuineness of those compiled by the Followers.

Already in the generation following that of the Companions of the Prophet (Ashāh or Sahäbu), that of the Tabi’ün”, says he, “people began to collect the traditions of the sayings and doings of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) which were current at the time.

 If the data for the Ahädith of a number of the Companions of the Prophet recorded on leaves (Sahā’id) or in books (kutub) is partly of uncertain worth, still there can be no doubt that such written records were no longer a rarity in the generation of the Tabi’un, who derived this knowledge from the Companions.”? 

The discovery of the Sahifa of Hammām b. Munabbih which has been published by Dr. Hamīdullah shows the nature and the character of these Sahifas.

It proves that they were not mere memoranda as Goldziher suggests, but were complete records of some of the sayings of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) just like those found in the later collections of hadith. 

There existed some books in Arabic, however, even before the advent of Islam” which introduced a new spirit and fresh energy for the literary activities among the Arabs.

 It has already been proved that books were written on many branches of Arabic literature during the second half of the first century of the Islanic era. Abid b. Sharya wrote (during the reign of Mu’awiya I) a book on the pre-Islannic kings of Arabia,’ which enjoyed some popularity during the 10th century A.D. Suhar b. al *Abbās, who lived during the reign of the same caliph, wrote a book on proverbs. Theodocus, a plıysician in the court of al-Hajjāj, wrote some books on Medicine.?

 Abau collected (according to Professor Horovitz) materials for a book on Maghazi.* ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr, who died about the end of the first century of the Hijra, is said to have written a book on the said subject.

 “Although nowhere in the older sources,” says Horovitz, “is it said that ‘Urwa composed an actual book on the Maghāzi, it is nonetheless certain that he collected and set forth a series of the most important events in the Prophet’s life.”

 The same collector of Maghází also compiled some books on figh which he burnt on the day of the battle of Harra,””

How, then, could the Muslims of those by-gone days have neglected the collection of Ahādah, which had been accepted by them since the life-time of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) as an authority next to the Qur’an for all their religious and social problems. 

The early sources of hadith, however, fall into three distinct groups. First, the books on Maghází or Sirat, like those of Ibn Ishāq and others, in which are found most of the historical anūdīh.

Second, the books on figh, like the Minvatta of Imām Mālik and the Kitāb al-Unum of al-Shafi’i, in which are found a large number of legal ahādīth. Third, the works in which arādīth as such have been collected.

It is with some of these works and their authors that we propose to deal in this chapter. 

Many of the musnads ascribed to early authors were compiled long after them  of all the various classes of hadith works (which have been described earlier) the musmuds appear to be the earliest in origin.

But many of them which are generally ascribed to some of the early authorities on hadith were, in fact, compiled by some of the later traditionists who collected together such chadith as were related to them by, or on the authority of, any one important wi. Such are the inusnads 

of Abu Hanīfa, al-Shāfi’ī, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-* Azīz and some others, none of whom is known to have compiled any musnad work.

The musnad which is generally known as that of Abu Hanifa was compiled by Abū al Mu’ayyid Muhammad b. Mahmūd al-Khwārizmi (d. 665/1257).”

The musnad of al-Shafi’ī was compiled on the basis of his Kitab al-Umm and al-Mahsut by Muhammad b. Ya’qub al-Asamm (d. 246/860).12 The work known as the musnad of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz was compiled by al Bāghandī” (d. 282/895).

The musnad of Abū Dā’īd al-Tayālisī also, which is considered to be the earliest musnad work received by us, had not been compiled in its present form by al-Tayālisī himself, but by a certain traditionist of Khurāsān at a later date.’S 

An old, rare and important inanuscript of this work is preserved in the Oriental Public Library of Patna, and has been fully described by Maulwi ‘Abd al-Hamid in the catalogue of the MSS of hadith works in the O.P. Library at Bankipore, 16 On the basis of this manuscript has been published the Hyderabad edition of the musnad by the Dā’irat al-Ma’ārif of Hyderabad. 

Life of al-Tayâlisi. Abū Dā’ūd, Sulayman b. Dā’ūd b, al-Jārūd al Tayālisī, to whom the musnad is generally ascribed, was of Persian origin.

He was born in the year 133/750-51 of the Hijra.

He studied traditions with more than a thousand traditionists of his time, among whom are mentioned many prominent persons, e.g. Shu ba (on traditions related by whom al-Tayālisi seems to have specialized), Sufyān al-Thaurī, and others.

He had a sharp, retentive memory, and is said to have dictated 40,000 traditions without using any notes. During his life-time he was accepted as an authority on hadih in general and as a specialist in the long ahādīth in particular.

The students of traditions flocked round him from every part of the Muslim world. His teacher Shu ba having heard hiin discuss certain traditions with some students, confessed that he himself could not do better.

Strict traditionists like Ahmad b. Hanbal and *Alī b. al-Madīnī accepted Tayālisī’s authority and related traditions from 

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