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IBN TAYMIYYAH AND KITAB AL-IMAN11considered a necessary aspect of Iman. They stated: “Iman is taâ€¢$iq, assent, in theheart and a saying of the tongue but does not include works. They furtherasserted that Iman is mere ta$iq, assent, and film, knowledge, without work.Therefore if someone is judged to be an unbeliever who will abide in Hell foreternity, it is because he lacked knowledge and assent in his heart. According tothe Jahmites, a person can commit all sorts of blasphemous acts and still be calleda believer as long as he has Iman in his heart. Jahm Ibn Safwأ¤n considered suchbehavior as mere acts of unbelief that did not nullify Iman in one’s heart. On thisissue Ibn Taymiyyah was in complete disagreement with the MurjPites, Jahmites,and any other Islamic sects that agreed with them.The Karrأ¤mites views of Iman focused on qawl, saying, whereas the Jahmites andMurji)ites emphasized knowledge. Both of these groups, however, did notconsider (amal, work, as an essential part of Iman. Ibn Taymiyyah argued stronglyagainst the view of the MurjPites, who affirmed that Iman is mere ta$iq, assent.He said that was one of the gravest errors they ever committed. The concept ofIman is even more comprehensive and universal than most Islamic sects werewilling to consider or imagine. It includes work, saying, and intent, followed bythe Sunnah. he Increase and Decrease of ImanThe issue of whether Iman can be increased or diminished was discussed by IbnTaymiyyah, and, as in his customary method, he cited Qur)أ¤nic verses and anumber of hadiths that supported his discussion. In this regard the MurjPitesquestioned how this issue applied to camal, work. This is an important issuebecause Ibn Taymiyyah considered work to be an essential constituent of Iman. e judged the MurjPites’ view of Iman as mere assent, and film,knowledge, without any reference to work, to be one of their gravest errors.Another error, according to Ibn Taymiyyah, is that the Murji )itesjudged someoneto be an unbeliever who abides in Hell forever if he lacks assent and knowledgein his heart. The Murji)ites also believed that Iman, which lies in the heart,In regard to this sect, W. Madelung states: “The identification of faith with true belief to theexclusion of acts, which later became the essential trait ofirdiأ¤), was clearly implied. though notthe central theme, in the earliest Murji)ite’s teachings.” EI 2, vol. 7, pp. 605-7; also referred toin Abu Zahrah, pp. 175â€”78, and in Izutsu, pp. 159-79.