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The Biography of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affin – Dhun-Noorayn pdf

The Biography of 'Uthman ibn 'Affin - Dhun-Noorayn - 16.07 - 621
book-icon-openmaktabaBook Title: The Biography of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affin – Dhun-Noorayn
author-icon-openmaktabaBook Author: Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi
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 The Biography of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affin – Dhun-Noorayn

Book Description

The Biography of ‘Uthmân Ibn Affân Dhun-Noorayn is a detailed account of the life of Uthman, the third caliph of Islam, written by Dr. Ali Muhammad As-Sallabi and translated by Nasir Khattab. The book provides an in-depth look at Uthman’s life, from his early years in Makkah to his time in Madinah and his appointment as caliph, as well as his approach to ruling and the main features of his character.

The book is divided into seven chapters, starting with ‘Uthmân’s name, lineage, kunyah, nicknames, physical attributes, and family, and his status during the Jahiliyyah. It covers his coming to Islam, his marriage to Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, his persecution, and migration to Abyssinia. The book also delves into Uthman’s relationship with the Holy Qur’an, his standing in Madinah, and his contributions to the establishment of the state.

Chapter two highlights Uthman’s appointment as caliph and his method of ruling, including his letters to his agents, governors, commanders, and the people at large. The chapter also discusses the highest authority in the state, the ummah’s right to call the caliph to account, shoora, justice, equality, and other aspects of Uthman’s character. It shows how his strong leadership and just governance shaped the early Islamic state.

Chapter three focuses on financial and judiciary institutions at the time of ‘Uthmân, including public income from the jizyah, kharaj, and ‘ushoor, as well as the policy of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affân in allocating land. It also discusses types of public expenditure and the continuation of the stipend system at the time of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

Chapter four covers the conquests at the time of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affän, including his conquests in the East, the campaign of Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas to Tabaristan, and the conquests of ‘Abd-Alláh ibn ‘Aamir and al-Bab and Balanjar in Syria. The chapter also discusses the campaign to Cyprus and the conquests in Egypt, as well as the writing down of the Holy Qur’an and the compilation of ‘Uthman.

Chapter five is dedicated to governors at the time of ‘Uthman, detailing his policies and their rights and duties. It highlights some of the governors during his reign, including Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan ibn Harb al-Umawi, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Aamir ibn Kurayz, and al-Waleed ibn ‘Uqbah. The chapter shows how ‘Uthman kept watch on his governors and checked on them frequently.

Chapter six explains the reasons for the fitnah that led to the murder of ‘Uthman, including social change at the time, the cessation of conquest, the mistaken concept of piety, and the ambitions of ambitious people. It also shows how the conspiracy of the haters and the use of means to stir up the people influenced the fitnah.

Chapter seven covers the murder of ‘Uthman and the turmoil that led up to it, highlighting ‘Uthman’s policy in dealing with the turmoil and the rebels’ occupation of Madinah. The chapter also discusses the attitude of the Sahibah towards the murder of ‘Uthman and its effect in creating further turmoil and division.

Overall, The Biography of ‘Uthmân Ibn Affân Dhun-Noorayn is a informative and engaging book that provides insight into the life of one of the most important figures in Islamic history. The book is well-researched and provides a thorough examination of ‘Uthman’s life and contributions to the establishment of the early Islamic state. It is an excellent resource for scholars and students of Islamic history, and for anyone interested in learning more about the life of ‘Uthman.

Some Book Contents

  • Chapter:
    • The Biography of ‘Uthmân Ibn Affân Dhun-Noorayn
    • Introduction
    • ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affân Dhun-Noorayn: Introduction
    • Name, Lineage, Kunyah, Nicknames, Physical Attributes, Family
    • Kunyah during the Jahiliyyah
    • Nickname: Dhun-Noorayn
    • Birth
    • Physical Attributes
    • Family
    • Marriages and Children
  • Chapter:
    • ‘Uthman’s Appointment as Caliph
    • Introduction
    • ‘Uthman’s appointment as caliph
    • ‘Umar’s deep insight when appointing his successor
    • Umar’s advice to the caliph who would come after him
    • How ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf conducted the shoora process
    • False reports inserted by the Rifidis into the story of the shoora
    • ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan was more qualified to become the caliph
    • Consensus concerning the caliphate of ‘Uthman
    • Ruling on preferring ‘Ali over ‘Uthman
    • ‘Uthman’s method of ruling
    • ‘Uthman’s letters to his agents, governors, and commanders
    • The highest authority in the state
    • The ummah’s right to call the caliph to account
    • Shoora
    • Justice and equality
    • Freedoms
    • Inspection (Hisbah)
    • His main characteristics
    • Knowledge and teaching skills
    • Forbearance
    • Easygoing nature
    • Gentleness
    • Forgiveness
    • Humility
    • Modesty and chastity
    • Generosity
    • Courage
    • Resolve
    • Patience
    • Justice
    • Worship
    • Fear of Allah, weeping, and taking stock of himself
    • Asceticism
    • Gratitude
    • Checking on people
    • Defining the specialties of workers
    • Benefitting from qualified people
  • Chapter:
    • Financial and Judiciary Institutions…
    • Financial institutions
    • Financial policy announced by ‘Uthman when he became caliph
    • ‘Uthman’s guidelines explaining the basic principles of zakah to the people
    • The khums (one-fifth) of the war booty
    • Public income from the jizyah at the time of ‘Uthman
    • Public income from the kharaj and ‘ushoor at the time of ‘Uthman
    • ‘Uthman’s policy in allocating land
    • ‘Uthman’s policy in allocating land for grazing
    • Types of public expenditure at the time of ‘Uthman
    • Continuation of the stipend system at the time of ‘Uthman
    • Effect of increased abundance of wealth on social and economic life
    • ‘Uthman and his relatives, and stipends from the bayt al-mal
    • Judicial institutions and some fiqhi ijtihads
    • Qisas, hudood punishments, and ta’zeer punishments
    • Acts of worship and transactions between people
  • Chapter:
    • Conquests at the Time of ‘Uthman…
    • Introduction
    • ‘Uthman’s conquests in the East
    • Conquests of the people of Kufah: Azerbaijan, 24 AH
    • Participation of the people of Kufah in sabotaging Byzantine movements
    • The campaign of Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas to Tabaristan in 30 AH
    • The flight of the Persian king Yazdagird to Khorasan
    • The death of Yazdagird the Persian king in 31 AH
    • The conquests of ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Aamir, 31 AH
    • The campaign of al-Bab and Balanjar in 32 AH
    • The Christians expressed their sorrow on the death of Yazdagird
    • The conquests of Ibn ‘Aamir, 32 AH
    • Fighting between the army of al-Ahnaf and the people of Takharistan, al-Jawzajân, al-Taliqân, and al-Fariyab
    • Al-Ahnaf’s treaty with the people of Balkh, 32 AH
    • ‘I shall give my thanks to Allah by entering in from the point from which I set out for “umrah’
    • The defeat of Qirin in Khorasan
    • One of the leaders of the conquests in the east at the time of ‘Uthman: al-Ahnaf ibn Qays
    • Conquests in Syria
    • The conquests of Habeeb ibn Maslamah al-Fihri
    • The first one to allow the Muslims to campaign by sea was ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan
    • The campaign to Cyprus
    • Surrender and request for a peace treaty
    • ‘Abd-Allah ibn Qays, commander of the Muslim navy in Syria
    • The Cypriots break the treaty
    • How insignificant are the people to Allah if they disobey Him
    • ‘Ubidah ibn al-Simit dividing the spoils of Cyprus
    • Conquests on the Egyptian front
    • Suppression of the rebels in Alexandria
    • The conquest of Nubia
    • The conquest of North Africa
    • The heroism of ‘Abd-Allah ibn az-Zabayr in the conquest of North Africa
    • The battle of Dhat al-Sawari
    • Where did the battle take place?
    • Events of the battle
    • The outcome of Dhat al-Sawari
    • The most important lessons learned from the conquests of ‘Uthman
    • The greatest achievement of ‘Uthman: uniting the ummah with a single Mushaf
    • Stages in the writing down of the Holy Qur’an
    • Consulting the Sahabah with regard to the compilation of ‘Uthman
    • The difference between the compilation of Abu Bakr and the compilation of ‘Uthman
    • Did the ‘Uthmani manuscripts contain all seven recitations?
    • The number of Mushafs that ‘Uthman sent to the regions
    • The attitude of ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas’ood towards the Mushaf of Uthman
    • The Sahabah’s understanding of the verses which forbid dissent
  • Chapter:
    • Governors at the Time of ‘Uthman…
    • Introduction
    • Regions of the Islamic state at the time of Uthman and his policy with regard to governors
    • Makkah al-Mukarramah
    • al-Bahrain and al-Yamamah
    • Yemen and Hadramawt
    • The province of Syria
    • Armenia
    • The province of Egypt
    • al-Madinah al-Munawwarah
    • The province of Basra
    • The province of Kufah
    • ‘Uthman’s policies with his governors and their rights and duties
    • How ‘Uthman kept watch on his governors and checked on them frequently
    • The rights of governors
    • Duties of governors
    • Who were the governors of ‘Uthman?
    • Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan ibn Harb al-Umawi
    • ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Aamir ibn Kurayz
    • His economic developments in Basra
    • al-Waleed ibn ‘Uqbah
    • Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas
    • ‘Abd-Allah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi’l-Sarh
    • Marwan ibn al-Hakam and his father
    • Did ‘Uthman show favoritism to any of his relatives at the expense of the Muslims?
    • The true nature of the relationship between Abu Dharr al-Ghifari and ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affân
    • Summary of the story
    • Proving false the report that Ibn Saba’ influenced Abu Dharr
    • The death of Abu Dharr and ‘Uthman’s adding his family to his own
  • Chapter:
    • Reasons for the Fitnah that Led…
    • Introduction
    • The importance of studying the turmoil that led up to the murder of ‘Uthman, and its consequences
    • The wisdom of the Prophet in telling ‘Uthman of what would happen
    • Reasons for the turmoil that led to the killing of ‘Uthman
    • Prosperity and its effect on society
    • The nature of social change at the time of ‘Uthman
    • ‘Uthman’s coming after ‘Umar
    • Departure of the senior Sahabah from Madinah
    • Jhali tribalism
    • The cessation of conquest
    • Mistaken concept of piety
    • Ambitions of ambitious people
    • The conspiracy of the haters
    • Plans to stir up trouble against ‘Uthman
    • Using means to stir up the people
    • Influence of the Saba’is (followers of ‘Abd-Allâh ibn Saba’) on the fitnah
  • Chapter:
    • The Murder of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affân…
    • Introduction
    • The spread of fitnah (turmoil)
    • The followers of whims and desires were upset with the reforms
    • The Jew ‘Abd-Allah ibn Saba’ was the head of the gang
    • Mischief-makers causing trouble in the majlis of Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas
    • The exiles from Kufah with Mu’awiyah
    • Mu’awiyah’s letter to ‘Uthman about the troublemakers in Kufah
    • Return of the troublemakers to Kufah followed by their expulsion to al-Jazeerah
    • ‘Uthman’s policy in dealing with the turmoil (fitnah)
    • Some of the Sabbah thought that ‘Uthman should send committees to investigate the matter
    • He wrote a letter to all the provinces that was a general announcement to all Muslims
    • ‘Uthman’s advice to the governors of the provinces
    • Establishing proof against the rebels
    • Responding to some of their requests
    • ‘Uthman’s guidelines for dealing with turmoil
    • The rebels’ occupation of Madinah
    • Arrival of the rebels from the regions
    • The beginning of the siege, and ‘Uthman’s opinion on praying behind the leaders of the troublemakers
    • Negotiations between ‘Uthman and the besiegers
    • The Sahabah’s offer to defend ‘Uthman and his rejection thereof
    • The attitude of the Mothers of the Believers and some of the female Sahabah
    • Who led the people in Hajj that year? Did ‘Uthman ask the governors for help?
    • The martyrdom of ‘Uthman
    • The date of his murder, his age when he was martyred, his funeral and burial
    • Attitude of the Sahabah towards the murder of ‘Uthman
    • ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir’s attitude
    • ‘Amr’s innocence of the murder of ‘Uthman
    • Comments of the Sahabah about the fitnah
    • The effect of ‘Uthman’s murder in creating further turmoil and division
    • Wronging and transgressing against others are causes of doom in this world and in the Hereafter
    • The Muslims’ sorrow at the murder of ‘Uthman

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