THE GREAT FIQH - AL-FIQH AL-AKBAR
📘 Book Title The Great Fiqh
👤 Book Authorabu Hanifah
🖨️ Total Pages20
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🌐 LanguageEnglish
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The great fiqh – Book Samples

THE GREAT FIQH

The basics of Monotheism (Tawheed): 

أصل التوحيد و ما يصح الاعتقاد عليه يجب أن يقول

The basics of monotheism (Tawheed)’, and that which makes faith (Iman) valid, that one 

says: 

1- آمنت بالله و ملائكته و کتبه و رسله و البعث بعد الموت و القدر خيره و شره من الله تعالى , والحساب و الميزان , والجنة والنار حق كله 

1. I believe in Allah (God), His angels, His books, His messengers, resurrection after death, fate, whether good and bad is from Allah Ta’ala, the accounting, the scale, hellfire, and paradise, all is true. 

2- والله تعالى واحد لا من طريق العدد ولكن من طريق أنه لا شريك له قل هو الله أحد الله الصمد لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد. 

2. Allah is One, not in a numerical sense, but in the sense that He has no partner – “Say: He is God The One; God the Samad’ ; He begets not, nor was He begotten; and there is nothing comparable to Him.” 

1- Monotheism: means Tawheed. Some people translate Tawheed of Allah as “unity of Allah”, this is a dangerously erroneous translation, which may lead to blasphemy. Tawheed entails knowing The Creator, by His attributes of Perfection indicating His absolute uniqueness and Oneness.

Notice that Al-imam Abu Hanifah (r.a.) mentions the Islamic Tawheed as one, reflecting the belief of early righteous Muslims. This refutes the evil innovators who presented a recent philosophical concept of Tawheed being three kinds (i.e. rububiyyah, uluiyyah, and asma wa sifat).

Know, may Allah guide you, that such classification was never mentioned in the Qur’an, nor was it ever taught or even mentioned by the Prophet, sallallahu alahi wa aalihi wa sallam, through out his entire life, nor any of the Ahlul Bayt or Sahaba al-Kiram ever even mentioned it, nor any of the massive numbers of Taabi’een nor Tabi’at-Taabi’een.

 Simply stated, the new innovation of three Tawheeds instead of One, is a recent, unnecessary, and flawed philosophy. One should exercise the best efforts to adhere to the pure Tawheed as in the Qur’an and authentic Sunnah, and reject innovations made by fallible people. 

2- As-Samad: it is mentioned in the 2nd ayah of Surat Al-Ikhlaas, aka: surat At-Tawheed, and it is among the names of Superiority of Allah Ta’ala. As-Samad means: The One who is not in need of anything for anything, yet everything is in need of Him for everything. 

3- لا يشبه شيئا من الأشياء من خلقه ولا يشبهه شيء من خلقه

3. He does not resemble anything of His creation, nor does anything among His creation resemble Him. 

4- لم يزل ولا يزال بأسمائه وصفاته الذاتية والفعلية 

4. He has eternally existed, and will everlastingly? exist, with His names and attributes, both relating to Him and His actions -not subject to change 

5- أما الذاتية والحياة والقدرة والعلم والكلام والسمع والبصر والارادة , وأما الفعلية فالتخليق والترزيق و الانشاء والابداع والصنع وغير ذلك من صفات الفعل

5. As for the attributes relating to Him, they are: Life, Power, Knowledge, kalam, Hearing, Sight, and Will. As for those relating to His actions, they are: Creating, Sustenance, Originating, Making, Fashioning, and other attributes of actions. 

6- لم يزل ولا يزال بأسمائه وصفاته لم يحدث له اسم ولا صفة 

6. He has eternally existed, and will everlastingly exist, with His attributes and names; neither attribute nor name was created or subject to change- . 

7- لم يزل عالما بعلمه والعلم صفة في الأزل

7. He has eternally been The All-Knowing, by of His knowledge, and His knowledge (just like the rest of His attributes) is an eternal attribute. 

8- وقادرا بقدرته والقدرة صفة في الأزل

8. He has eternally been attributed with Power, by His Power, and His power is an eternal attribute. 

9- ومتكلما بكلامه, والكلام صفة في الأزل

9. He has eternally been attributed with Al-Kalam, by His Speech and His Speech is an eternal attribute. 

1. Eternal: when eternal or eternity is added to Allah’s attributes, it means an absolute eternity with no beginning, as beginning is a thing, and Allah is The Creator of everything. Also beginning entails time, and Allah is The Creator of time. It is a reflection of the Arabic word: Al-Azali. 

2. Everlasting: it means without an end. [Al-Abadi). Both The Eternal and Everlasting are the English 

which means: He is the Eternal with no beginning and The ,هو الأول والآخر :translation of the ayah 

Everlasting with no end. It does not mean the first and the last, like some erroneous translations. 

10- وخالقا بتخليقه والتخليق صفة في الأزل

10. He has eternally been The Creator, by Creating, and His creating is an eternal attribute. 

11وفاعلا بفعله , والفعل صفة في الأزل والفاعل هو الله تعالى, والفعل صفة في الأزل والمفعول مخلوق, وفعل الله تعالی غیر مخلوق

11- He wills for actions and things to happen, His will to initiate a certain thing is an eternal attribute, He is The One willing for it to happen. His will is an eternal attribute; the object of His Will is creation, and His action is non-created. 

12- وصفاته في الأزل غير محدثة ولا مخلوقة, فمن قال: إنها مخلوقة أو محدثة, أو وقف, أو شك فيها فهو كافر بالله تعالی

12- His attributes existed in eternity; they did not exist after being non-existent, nor were they created. Whoever says that they are created, existed after being non-existent, or is uncertain about the attributes and doubts them, is a disbeliever in Allah Ta’ala. 

باب القرآن الكريم: 

The Glorious Qur’an: 

13- والقرآن كلام الله تعالى في المصاحف مكتوب, وفي القلوب محفوظ وعلى الألسن مقروء, وعلى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام منزل, ولفظنا بالقرآن مخلوق وكتابتنا له مخلوقة وقرائتنا له مخلوقة والقرآن غير مخلوق

13. The Qur’an is the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, written on books (masahif), preserved in the hearts, recited on the tongues, and revealed to the Prophet, sallallahu alahi wa aalihi 

n. Our utterance of the Qur’an is created, and our recitation of the Qur’an is created, but the Qur’an (as the attribute of Kalam of Allah) is not created. 

14- وما ذكر الله تعالى في القرآن حكاية عن موسى وغيره من الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام. وعن فرعون وإبليس فإن ذلك كله كلام الله تعالى إخبارا عنهم, وكلام الله تعالی غیر مخلوق وكلام موسی و غيره من المخلوقين مخلوق والقرآن كلام الله تعالى فهو قديم لاكلامهم

14- And what Allah Ta’ala mentioned in the Qur’an about Moses and other of the prophets – alayhem assalatu wassalam – and also about the Pharaoh and Satan, all of it is Allah’s Kalam, informing us about them. Allah’s Kalam is not created, but the speech of Moses and other creation is created. The Qur’an is the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, hence, it is not created, unlike the creation. 

15- وسمع موسى عليه السلام کلام الله تعالى كما قال الله تعالى: { وكلم الله موسى تكليما}. وقد كان الله تعالى متكلما ولم يكن كلم موسی علیه السلام وقد كان الله خالقا في الأزل ولم يخلق الخلق وليس كمثله شيء وهو السميع البصير. فلما كلم الله موسی کلمه بكلامه الذي هو له صفة في الأزل. 

15- Moses, alayhi assalam, received the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, as Allah Ta’ala mentioned (which means): “and Allah addressed Moses in speech.” Therefore, Allah 

Ta’ala was always attributed with Kalam in eternity, before willing to reveal anything to Moses. Just as Allah Ta’ala, was The Creator in eternity, even without having created anything: “Nothing is like Him, and He is attributed with Hearing and Sight.” When Allah addressed Moses He did so with His Kalam that is an eternal attribute. 

باب مخالفة صفات الله عزوجل للحوادث

Dissimilar from every creation in every respect 

16- وصفاته كلها بخلاف صفات المخلوقين

16- And all of His attributes are unlike the attributes of the creation. 

17- يعلم لاكعلمنا

17- He is attributed with knowledge, which is unlike our knowledge. 

18- ويقدر لاكقدرتنا۔ 

18- He is attributed with Power, which is unlike our power. 

19- ويرى لاكرؤيتنا

19- He is attributed with Sight, which is unlike our sight. 

20- ويسمع لاكسمعنا

20- He is attributed with Hearing, which is unlike our hearing. 

21- ويتكلم لا ككلامنا ونحن نتكلم بالآلات والحروف والله تعالى يتكلم بلا آلة ولاحروف 

21- Allah Ta’ala is attributed with Kalam which is unlike our speech, as it is neither by means of organs, parts, limbs, sounds, nor letters (alphabets). 

22- والحروف مخلوقة وكلام الله تعالی غیر مخلوق

22- Letters (alphabets or Sounds) are a creation. Yet Allah’s Kalam is not created. 

باب جوهر التوحيد ومايجب لله عزوجل: 

The Core of Tawheed (monotheism]: 

23- He is an “entity/thing”, but unlike other entities/things. 

24- ومعنى الشيء اثباته بلا جسم ولاجوهر ولا عرض

24- The intended meaning of saying He is a “thing,” is to merely affirm His existence, but He is not a body, nor substance. Neither composed of nor consists of parts of a whole, or a whole without parts. 

25- He does not have limits nor ends. 

26- He does not have equals nor comparables. 

27- There is nothing similar to Him. 

Allah Ta’ala is not a body, nor is He a matter that has a mass and occupies space. Allah Ta’ala is 

The Creator of mass, matter, bodies and physics. The laws of physics do not limit Him, but certainly limits everything. Attributing Allah Ta’ala with a body, or similar to body, body organs, or limbs leads to unambiguous blasphemy.

Allah is The Creator and is not similar to the creation. Allah Ta’ala is not attributed with limits nor ends, because limits, ends, space, place, directions, time, above, below, and everything else are all His creation.

He, subhanahu wa Ta’ala, existed eternally when nothing else existed, i.e. no place, no space, no directions, no limits, no above no below, etc.. all those were brought into existence by Allah, who is not in need of them to exist, and existed before their creation without needing them.

Attributing Allah Ta’ala with being confined to the sky, heaven, or above the 7th heaven, sitting on a throne, consisting of organs and limbs, being a mass, governed by space or time, being limited by His creation ….etc., leads to unambiguous blasphemy. Allah is The Creator, and He does not resemble the creation in anyway. Nothing is 

like Him. 

باب التفويض في المتشابه من الآيات في توحيد الله وصفاته جل جلاله مع نفي الكيف عنه سبحانه

Submitting to Allah [Tafweedh) in the Mutashabihaat of Ayahs”, without a how/modality: 

28- وله يد ووجه ونفس كما ذكره الله تعالى في القرآن, فما ذكره الله تعالى في القرآن من ذكر الوجه واليد والنفس فهو صفات له بلا كيف

28- He added to Himself meanings of Yad (literal meaning is a Hand), Wajh (literal meaning is Face), and Nafs (literal meaning is Self); as Allah Ta’ala mentioned in the Qur’an. Hence, what Allah Ta’ala mentioned about the Yad, Wajh, and Nafs, are meanings He added to Himself, without a “how” (modality). 

29- ولايقال: إن يده قدرته أو نعمته, لأن فيه إبطال الصفة [وهذا رد على من أراد تحديد معنى اليد وتفسيرها على أنها القدرة أو النعمة حصرار والإمام يشير إلى أن الآية التي ورد فيها ذكراليد هي من الآيات المتشابهة التي لايعلم حقيقتها وكنهها إلا الله, وسبيل النجاة في ذلك هو تفويض المعنى مطلقا إلى الله مع تنزيهه جل وعلا عن مشابهة المخلوقات فلايقال يا حقيقية ولاجارحة ومن قال بأنها عضو من كل أو جزء من جسم مركب أو جارحة فقد كفرر ولا يقال كيف ]. وهو قول أهل القدر والاعتزال

29- It should not be said that His Yad definitively means His power or His bounty (exclusively), because such a definitive (and exclusive) interpretation may negate the meaning (Allah willed). This is the method of the (Qadariyyah) and the Mu’tazilah. 

30- ولكن يده صفته بلا كيف

30- Rather, His Yad is a meaning He added to Himself without a “how” [modality], (as there cannot be a họw, because it is not similar to the creation, not limbs, organs, parts,…etc., a modality, for or shape can only be applied to the creation and attributes of the creation). 

31- وغضبه ورضاه صفتان من صفاته تعالی بلا كيف 

31- Anger and pleasure, are two meanings He added to Himself, but (must be understood) without a “how” [modality). 

  1. The Ayat of the Qur’an are classified as per Surat Al-Imran, ayah 7, into two types; Ayat Mutashabihaat and Ayat Muhkamaat. Linguistically, The Muhkamat verses are those who linguistically and intellectually cannot accept but one meaning, such as blaul and B which can only mean that Allah is One.

The other verses, Ayat Mutashabihaat, are those ayat who linguistically and intellectually may accept more than one meaning.

 An example would be (jab ail 1) which means if translated literally: the hand of Allah is above their hands; yet attributing Allah with limbs or organs leads to blasphemy, hence, Al-imam Abu Hanifah (r.a) mentioned his way and the way of the pious predecessors in understanding such 

“Mutashabihaat” words, which is believing in such verses and submitting their entire meaning to Allah [Tafweedh].

Furthermore, Imam Abu Hanifah, warned from assigning a specific meaning to such verses, even if those meanings are facilitated linguistically and do not contradict the attributes of Perfection of Allah Ta’ala.

 One thing must be emphasized though, namely one must have no doubt that those kinds of verses do not intend to assign a limb, organ, or any attribute of any creation in any aspect. Attributing such things to Allah Ta’ala, leads to blasphemy.

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