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Ad Durrar alBaahiyaah – classical Islamic Jurisprudence

  • Book Title:
 Ad Durrar Albaahiyaah
  • Book Author:
Imam al Shawkan
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The Book of Purification – (AD DURRAR ALBAAHIYAAH)

This book discusses numerous issues.

First, water is pure and purifies.1 Water does not relinquish either of these

two characteristics (purity and ability to purify) unless:

  • Its scent, color or taste is altered as a result of an addition of Najasah (Impurities).
  • (Secondly, if) there is an addition of a Tahir (clean, pure) substance that is added to it (water) rendering it to be unrecognized as (pure) water and (therefore) it is no longer correct to give it the term water.3

There is to be no distinction made between water of varying amounts or whether the amount of water is greater than two Qullatyn or not.4 (There is to be no distinction between) water that is moving or stagnant,5 or water that has been used or unused.6

Impurities consist of:

  • The excrement and urine of Human beings. Except the urine of a young male child.7
  • Dog saliva8
  • Feces and Manure
  • Menstrual Blood
  • The flesh of swine

Other than these (above mentioned) there is disagreement (amongst the scholars as to their degree of impurity).

The principle (of deeming things impure) is (that all things are in a natural state) of Tahaarah (purity). They remain pure unless they are rendered impure by an authentically known source of unopposed impurity.

Purifying Impurities

Impurities are to be cleansed by being washed.9 (It is to be washed thoroughly) until there is no trace, color, smell or taste of the impurity remaining.

Shoes are to be cleansed by dragging and wiping them upon the ground.10

If the Najaasah turns into another material11 it becomes pure since its original impure nature –which was the source of the impurity- ceases to exist.

That which cannot be washed (due to its physical dimensions i.e. the ground), water is to be poured upon it (in sufficient amounts to purge it of the impurity) or it is to be expunged until no trace of the Najaasah remains.

Water is the primary cleansing tool that is to be used when purifying and cleansing. Nothing can be used (by itself) in its place unless there is an explicit permission alluding to this granted from the Lawgiver (Allah SWT).

Answering the Call of Nature

The one who (intends to) relieve himself is to ensure that he is hidden from the sight of others by entering into a lavatory or moving far from the places of habitation. He is to (squat down) near the ground and refrain from speaking and carrying on with regular activities,13 for it is prohibited.

(The one who intends to relieve himself) must not do so in the places that it has been prohibited in the Shar‘ (Islamic Law)14 or (out of) decency (knowing it is unacceptable in society).

When relieving oneself the individual should not face the Qiblah nor turn his back to it.

Upon completion the individual must cleanse oneself with at least three pure stones or that which is equivalent to them (in cleaning ability).16

It is preferred to seek refuge (al-Isti‘athah) before beginning,17and seek forgiveness and Praise (Allah)18 upon completion.19

The Ritual Ablution

It is an obligation upon every Mukalaf

  • To Mention the Name of Allah if one remembers21
  • And then rinse your mouth and snuff and blow your nose22
  • And then wash all of the face23
  • And then wash the arms up to an including the elbows.
  • And then wipe over the head and include the ears
  • It is acceptable to wipe only a portion of the head25
  • (It is acceptable) to wipe over a turban26
  • And then one must wash both of his feet and include the ankles
  • It is (acceptable) for him to wipe over the Khuff27
  • Wudu’ is not a ritually accepted ablution unless it is (performed) intending it (as a preparation) for prayer.28

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