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al-Waraqat fi Usul alFiqh by ilias pdf download

AL-WARAQAT FI USUL ALFIQH
  • Book Title:
 Al Waraqat Fi Usul Alfiqh
  • Book Author:
Abu Amina Ilias, Imam Al-Haramayn
  • Total Pages
17
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AL-WARAQAT FI USUL ALFIQH – Book Sample

Two english commentaries on alwaraqat are also available. You might like looking at the one for Musharrif and Hatem

معنى أصول الفقه

The meaning of Uṣūl al-Fiqh

هذه ورقات تشتمل على فصول من أصول الفقه وذلك مؤلف من جزأين مفردین

These pages include sections of the fundamentals of jurisprudence, which is composed of two individual parts.

فالأصل ما بني عليه غيره والفرع ما يثني على غيره

The ‘root’ (al-aşl) is that which other topics are based upon. The branch (al-far‘) is that which is based upon another topic.

والفقه معرفة الأحكام الشرعية التي طريقها الاجتهاد

Jurisprudence (al-fiqh) is knowledge of the rulings of the Law (al-sharīah) that are derived by way of independent reasoning (al-ijtihād).

أنواع الحكم

Categories of rulings

والأحكام سبعة الواجب والمندوب والمباح والمحظور والمكروه والصيح والباطل

Rulings are seven types: obligatory (al-wājib), recommended (al-mandūb), permissible (al-mubāḥ), forbidden (al-maḥzūr), disapproved (al-makrūh), sound (al-ṣaḥīḥ), and invalid (al-bāțil).

فالواجب ما يثاب على فعله ويعاقب على تركه

Obligatory is an action which is rewarded if done and is punished if left out.

والمندوب ما يثاب على فعله ولا يعاقب على تركه

Recommended is an action which is rewarded if done and is not punished if left out.

والمباح ما لا يثاب على فعله ولا يعاقب على تركه

Permissible is an action which is neither rewarded if done nor is punished if left Out.

والمحظور ما يثاب على تركه ويعاقب على فعله

Forbidden is an action which is rewarded if left out and is punished if done.

والمكروه ما يثاب على تركه ولا يعاقب على فعله

Disapproved is an action which is rewarded if left out and is not punished if done.

والصحيح ما يتعلق به النفوذ ويعتد به

Sound is the proper implementation of a deed and is considered acceptable.

والباطل ما لا يتعلق به النفوذ ولا يعتد به

Invalid is the improper implementation of a deed and is not considered acceptable.

الفرق بين الفقه والعلم والظن والشك

Difference between jurisprudence, knowledge, suspicion, and doubt

والفقه أخص من العلم والعلم معرفة المعلوم على ما هو به والجهل تصور الشيء على خلاف ما هو به

Jurisprudence is more specific than knowledge. Knowledge is to recognize what is known as it exists in reality. Ignorance is to imagine something differently than it is in reality.

والعلم الضروري ما لم يقع عن نظر و استدلال گالعلم الواقع بإحدى الحواس الخمس التي هي السمع والبصر والشم والذوق واللمس أو التواثر

Unavoidable knowledge is what does not result from reflection or inference, such as knowledge of reality by one of the five senses, which are hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, and touching, or by unanimous reports (al-tawātir).

وأما العلم المكتسب فهو الموقوف على النظر والاستدلال والنظر هو الفكر في حال المنظور فيه والاستدلال طلب الليل والدليل هو المرشد إلى المطلوب لأنه علامة عليه

As for acquired knowledge, it is dependent upon reflection and inference. Reflection is thought upon the situation under reflection. Inference is seeking an indication. An indication guides to what is sought, as it points to it.

والظن تجويز أمرين أحدهما أظهر من الآخر

Suspicion is the presence of two possibilities, one of which is more likely than the other.

والشك تجويز أمرين لا مزية لأحدهما على الآخر

Doubt is the presence of two possibilities, neither of which is more likely than the other.

وعلم أصول الوقه طرقه على سبيل الإجمال وكيفية الاستدلال بها

The knowledge of the fundamentals of jurisprudence are its general methods and its mode of drawing inferences.

أبواب أصول الفقه

Topics of Uşūl al-Fiqh

وأبواب أصول الفقه أقسام الكلام والأمر والقي والعام والخاص والمجمل و المبين والظاهر والمؤول والأفعال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والناسخ والمنسوخ والإجماع والأخبار والقياس والحظر والإباحة وترتيب الأولة وصفة المفتي والمستفتي وأحكام المجتهدين

The topics of the fundamentals of jurisprudence are the types of statements, commands and prohibitions, general and specific, ambiguous and clear, apparent and interpreted, actions of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, abrogating and abrogated, consensus, reports, analogy, the basis of forbidden and permissible, priority of evidences, characteristics of the legal expert, characteristics of one seeking a verdict, and the rules of independent legal reasoning.

أقسام الكلام

Types of statements

فأما أقسام الكلام فأقل ما يتركب منه الكلام اسمان أو اسم وفعل أو فعل وحرف أو اسم وحرف

As for the types of speech, the smallest units from which a sentence is composed are two nouns, or a noun and a verb, or a verb and a particle, or a noun and a particle.

والكلام يقيم إلى أمر ونهي وخبر واستخبار وينقسم أيضا إلى تمن وعرض وقسم

Speech is divided into commands and prohibitions, declarations and questions. It is also divided into exclamations, suggestions, and oaths.

ومن وجه آخر يقيم إلى حقيقة ومجاز فالحقيقة ما بقي في الاستعمال على موضوعه وقيل ما استعمل فيما اصطلح عليه من المخاطبة والمجاز ما تجوز عن موضوعه

From another point of view, it is divided into literal and figurative speech. Literal speech is that which is used in its ordinary meaning, or it is said that it is used as a specific term known to its audience. Figurative speech is what goes beyond its ordinary meaning.

والحقيقة إما لغوية وإما شرعية وإما عرفية والمجاز إما أن يكون بزيادة أو نقصان أو نقل أو استعارة

Literal speech can be either linguistic, legal, or customary. Figurative speech can be by an addition, deletion, transfer, or metaphor.

فالمجاز بالزيادة مثل قوله تعالى ليس كمثله شيء فالكاف هنا زيادة في الكلام لتأكيد ذلك المعنى

Figurative by addition is like the saying of Allah Almighty, “There is nothing like unto Him,’ (42:11) in which an additional ‘like’ is added to emphasize the meaning.

والمجاز بالنقصان مثل قوله تعالى واسأل القرية أي اسأل أهل القرية

Figurative by deletion is like the saying of Allah Almighty, ‘Ask the village,’ (12:82) meaning ask the people of the village.

والمجاز بالنقل كالغائط فيما يخرج من الإنسان أي نقل اللفظ عن معناه الأصلي إلى معنى آخر ملتبس به

Figurative by transfer is like the word ‘gully’ (ghā’it) to refer to what exits the human body, as the original linguistic meaning has been changed to another obscure meaning.

والمجاز بالاستعارة كقوله تعالى جدارا يريد أن ينقض

Figurative by metaphor is like the saying of Allah Almighty, ‘A wall wanting to collapse…’ (18:77) as an inanimate thing has been compared to something else.

الأمر والنهي

Commands and prohibitions

والأمر استدعاء الفعل بالقول من هو دونه على سبيل الوجوب

The command is a call to action by words to a subordinate, in the manner of an obligation.

وصيغته افعل وهي عند الإطلاق والتجرد عن القرينة تحمل عليه إلا ما دل الدليل على أن المراد منه الندب أو الإباحة ولا تقتضي التكرار على الصيح إلا ما دل الليل على قصد التكرار ولا تقتضى الفور

Its grammatical form is, “Do!’ (if’al). It is understood to be in an absolute sense when it has no other mitigating factor to interpret it, unless there is an indication to convey the meaning recommendation or permission. It does not necessitate repetition, according to the correct opinion, unless there is an indication to convey the purpose of repetition. Neither does it necessitate immediacy.

والأمر بإيجاد الفعل أمر به وبما لا يتم الفعل إلا په کالأمر بالصلاة فإنه أمر بالطهارة المؤدية إليها و إذا فعل يخرج المأمور عن العهدة

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