|Avicennas Treatise On Logic Part One Of Danesh Name Alai A Concise Philosophical Encyclopaedia And Autobiography Pt 1|
|Avicenna, F. Zabeeh|
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Avicenna’s Treatise on Logic – Book Sample
INTRODUCTION – Avicenna’s Treatise on Logic
The Islamic philosophers, as I call them, (rather than the Arabic philosophers, since there were so many Persians, Turks, Spaniards, etc. among them) had a feature in common with the Christian philosophers of the Middle ages. They both endeavored to reconcile the Greek philosophy, mostly Aristotle’s, with the dogma of their religion – in one case with the Koranic and in another case with the Biblical doctrine.
This attempt is explainable. Since the free inquiry after truth, which was the legacy of Socrates, could not be continued under the tyranny of religion which had prevailed for a long time both in the Post-Islamic. Near-EastI and Medieval Europe, either philosophical investigation should be harmonized with the so-called revealed truth or should be condemned as heresy.
The theologian Ghazali (1058-nn) a countryman of Avicenna, in his book Tahafut al Falasifa (The Incoherence of Philosophers) argued against philosophers’ (such as Fariabi and Avicenna) attempts to reconcile Islamic doctrine with philosophy.
How could, for example, the religious dogma of the creation of the world ex nihilo be reconciled with the ancient Greek belief that ex nihilo nihil fit? The debate on this issue was an example of a typical philosophical debate among Islamic philosophers. Omar Khyyam (-?-n23) in one of his quatrains mocks the whole issue:
Since our place is not secure in this world, To live without wine and beloved is a big mistake. How long, 0 philosopher whether the world is created or eternal When I go, let it be created or eternal.
Or, how the belief in miracles could be compatible with the Aristotelian theory of scientific knowledge (the theory of Four Causes)? And, in general, how could faith live in harmony with reason? (The Augustinian question).
Gazali’s answer is clear: faith and reason, i.e., philosophy, could not live in harmony (and so much the worse for reason) and those who tried to combine the two had failed.
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