4 water mixed with impure elements. We shall discuss each of them separately.
Fiqh 1.1 a: Mutlaq water
This kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity and as such, it can be used by an individual to purify him or herself. It consists of the following categories:
Fiqh 1.1 b: Rain water, snow, and hail
These substances are pure because Allah says so: “And sent down water from the sky upon you, that thereby He might purify you…” (al-Anfal 1), and “We send down purifying water from the sky” (al- Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used to be silent between the (opening) takbir of the prayer and the verbal Qur’anic recitation.
Abu Hurairah asked him, “O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, why do you remain silent between the takbir and the recital? What do you say (silently during that time)?” He said, “I say, “O Allah, make a distance between me and my sins similar to the distance you have made between the East and the West. O Allah, cleanse me of my sins in the manner that a white garment (is cleansed) from dirt. O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow, water, and hail.”” This hadith is related by the “group”, except for at-Tirmizhi.
Figh 1.2: Sea water
Sea water’s purity is based on the following hadith: Abu Hurairah related that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, “O Messenger of Allah, we sail on the ocean and we carry only a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty.
May we use sea water for ablution?” Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, “Its (the sea) water is pure and its dead (animals) are lawful (i.e., they can be eaten without any prescribed slaughtering).” This hadith is related by “the five.” At-Tirmizhi calls it hassan sahih, and al-Bukhari says it is sahih.
Fiqh 1.2 a: Water from the well of Zamzam
‘Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, called for a bucket that contained water from the well of Zamzam. He drank from the bucket, then made ablution (with its water). This hadith is related by Ahmad.
Fiqh 1.2 b: Altered water
This involves water whose form has been altered because of its being in a place for a long period of time, or because of the place in which it is located, or because of its being mixed with a substance that cannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with algae, tree leaves, and so on). The scholars agree that this type of water falls under the heading of mutlaq water
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peace, and asked him about the ablution. He showed him how to wash each part three times and said,’This is the ablution. Whoever does more than that has done wrong, transgressed and committedevil.” (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.) ‘Uthman also reported that the Messenger of Allahwould repeat each washing three times. (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmizhi.) It is also proventhat he performed each washing only once or twice. According to most of the reports, he wiped hishead only once.Fiqh 1.31 c: Beginning each action with the right sideSaid ‘Aishah, “The Messenger of Allah loved to begin with his right side while putting on his shoes,straightening his hair and cleaning (or purifying) himself.” (Related by al-Bukhari and Musilm.) AbuHurairah reported that the Prophet said, “When you clothe or wash yourself, begin with your rightside.” (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa’i.)Fiqh 1. 2: Rubbing the limbs with waterThis means to rub the hands over the bodily parts with water. ‘Abdullah ibn Zaid reported that theMessenger of Allah was brought a pot of water which he used to perform ablution, and then rubbed hisarms. (Related by Ibn Khuzaimah.) He also related that the Messenger of Allah performed ablution,then rubbed his limbs. (Related by Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi, Ahmad, Ibn Hibban and Abu Ya’la.)Fiqh 1. 2 a: Close sequenceEach bodily part must be washed right after the other in the prescribed sequence (without separatingthe washing of the different parts of acts not related to the abution). This is the customary practice ofthe early and later generations of Muslims.Fiqh 1.32 b: Wiping the earsThe sunnah is to wipe the interior of the ears with the index fingers and the exterior portions with thethumbs. The water used to wipe the head is also used for the ears, as the ears are part of the head. Al-Miqdam ibn Mald Yakrih reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, wiped his head and his ears,the interior and exterior, while making ablution. He also put his finger inside his ear. (Related by AbuDawud and at-Tahawi.)While describing the ablution of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, Ibn ‘Umar said, “He wiped his headand ears with one wipe.” (Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. In one narration it states, “He wiped theinner portion of his ears with his index finger, and the outer portion with his thumb.”Fiqh 1.32 c: Elongating the streaks of lightThis refers to washing the complete forehead, a practice which is more than what is obligatory inwashing the face, and will increase the streak of light (on the Day of Judgement). It also refers towashing above the elbows and ankles. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, “Mynation will come with bright streaks of light from the traces of ablution.” Abu Hurairah then said, “If onecan lengthen his streak of light, he should do so.” (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim.) AbuZar’ah related that when Abu Hurairah made ablution, he washed his arms above his elbows and hisfeet up to his calves. He was asked, “Why do you do this?” He said, “This is the extent of theembellishment.” (Related by Ahmad. ) According to al-Bukhari and Muslim, its chain is sahih.Fiqh 1.32 d: Economizing the use of water, even if one is in front of the seaAnas said, “The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to perform ghusl (the complete bathing) with asa’a of water (1.616 cm) 3 to 5 madd (each 4 madd equals one sala). He also used to make ablutionwith one madd (404 cm) of water.” (Related by al-Bukhari and Musim.) ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abu Yazid