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Fundamentals of Physics pdf

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 Fundamentals of Physics

Short Book Description

Fundamentals of Physics by Jearl Walker is a two-volume, calculus-based physics textbook that is widely regarded as one of the best introductory physics textbooks available. It is known for its clear and engaging writing style, its emphasis on conceptual understanding, and its wide range of challenging and thought-provoking problems.

The book covers all of the major topics in introductory physics, including:

  • Mechanics: kinematics, dynamics, rotational motion, work and energy, momentum, and conservation laws.
  • Thermodynamics: temperature, heat, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the kinetic theory of gases.
  • Electromagnetism: electric fields, electric potential, capacitance, current, resistance, circuits, magnetic fields, magnetic forces, and induction.
  • Waves and optics: mechanical waves, sound waves, electromagnetic waves, light, and interference and diffraction.
  • Modern physics: relativity, quantum mechanics, and nuclear physics.

Walker’s book is unique in a number of ways. First, it places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding. Walker believes that students should not simply memorize formulas and equations, but should understand the physical principles behind them. To this end, he includes numerous thought-experiments and conceptual questions throughout the book.

Second, Walker’s book is known for its clear and engaging writing style. He has a knack for explaining complex concepts in a way that is both informative and entertaining. He also uses a variety of pedagogical techniques, such as analogies, humor, and real-world examples, to keep students engaged.

Third, Walker’s book includes a wide range of challenging and thought-provoking problems. These problems are designed to help students test their understanding of the material and to develop their problem-solving skills.

In addition to the two-volume textbook, Walker has also written a number of companion books, including:

  • The Flying Circus of Physics: A collection of physics demonstrations and stunts.
  • The Whole Shebang: A one-volume introduction to physics for non-science majors.
  • Halliday, Resnick and Walker’s Fundamentals of Physics Extended: A more comprehensive version of the textbook that includes additional topics and problems.

Walker’s books have been translated into many languages and are used by students and instructors all over the world. He has received numerous awards for his teaching and writing, including the American Physical Society’s Robert A. Millikan Award for Distinguished Teaching of Physics and the National Science Foundation’s Distinguished Teaching Scholar Award.

Book Contents

  • 1 Measurement
  • 2 Motion Along a Straight Line
  • 3 Vectors
  • 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
  • 5 Force and Motion-I
  • 6 Force and Motion-II
  • 7 Kinetic Energy and Work
  • 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
  • 9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
  • 10 Rotation
  • 11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum
  • 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity
  • 13 Gravitation
  • 14 Fluids
  • 15 Oscillations
  • 16 Waves-I
  • 17 Waves-II
  • 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
  • 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • VOLUME 2
  • 21 Coulomb’s Law
  • 22 Electric Fields
  • 23 Gauss’ Law
  • 24 Electric Potential
  • 25 Capacitance
  • 26 Current and Resistance
  • 27 Circuits
  • 28 Magnetic Fields
  • 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
  • 30 Induction and Inductance
  • 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current
  • 32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism of Matter 33 Electromagnetic Waves
  • 34 Images
  • 35 Interference
  • 36 Diffraction
  • 37 Relativity
  • 38 Photons and Matter Waves
  • 39 More About Matter Waves
  • 40 All About Atoms
  • 41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids 42 Nuclear Physics
  • 43 Energy from the Nucleus
  • 44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang
  • Appendices / Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems/Index________________
  • 1 Measurement 1
    • MEASURING THINGS, INCLUDING LENGTHS
  • What Is Physics? 1
  • Measuring Things
  • The International System of Units 2
  • Changing Units a
  • Length a
  • Significant Figures and Decimal Places 4
    • TIME 5
  • Time 5
    • MASS 6
  • Mass 6
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY & PROBLEMS &
  • Motion Along a Straight Line 13
  • Adding Vectors by Components 46 Vectors and the Laws of Physics 47
  • 1
  • 3-3 MULTIPLYING VECTORS 50
    • POSITION, DISPLACEMENT, AND AVERAGE VELOCITY 13 What Is Physics? 13
  • Motion 14
  • Position and Displacement 14
  • Average Velocity and Average Speed 15
    • INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED 18 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18
    • ACCELERATION 20 Acceleration 20
    • CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case 23 Another Look at Constant Acceleration 26
    • FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27 Free-Fall Acceleration 27
    • GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION IN MOTION ANALYSIS 29 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis 29
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 30 QUESTIONS 31 PROBLEMS 32
  • Vectors
  • 40
    • VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 40
  • What Is Physics? 40
  • Vectors and Scalars 40
  • Adding Vectors Geometrically 41
  • Components of Vectors 42
    • UNIT VECTORS, ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS 46 Unit Vectors 46
  • Multiplying Vectors 50
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 55 QUESTIONS 56 PROBLEMS 57
  • Motion in Two and Three Dimensions 62
  • 4-1 POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT 62
  • What Is Physics? 62
  • Position and Displacement 63
  • 4-2 AVERAGE VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY 64 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 65
  • 4-3 AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION 67
  • Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 68
  • 4-4 PROJECTILE MOTION 70 Projectile Motion 70
  • 4-5 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 76 Uniform Circular Motion 76
  • 4-6 RELATIVE MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION 78 Relative Motion in One Dimension 78
  • 4-7 RELATIVE MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS 80 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 81
  • QUESTIONS 82 PROBLEMS 84
  • Force and Motion- 94
  • 5-1 NEWTON’S FIRST AND SECOND LAWS 94
  • What is Physics? 94
  • Newtonian Mechanics 95
  • Newton’s First Law 95
  • Force 96
  • Mass 97
  • Newton’s Second Law 98
  • 5-2 SOME PARTICULAR FORCES 102
  • Some Particular Forces 102
  • 5-3 APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS
  • Newton’s Third Law 106
  • Applying Newton’s Laws 108
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 114
  • QUESTIONS 114 PROBLEMS 116
  • Force and Motion-II 124
  • 6-1 FRICTION 124
  • What Is Physics? 124
  • Friction 124
  • Properties of Friction 127
  • 6-2 THE DRAG FORCE AND TERMINAL SPEED
  • The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 130
  • 6-3 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 133
  • Uniform Circular Motion 133
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 138 QUESTIONS 139 PROBLEMS 140
  • Kinetic Energy and Work 149
  • 7-1 KINETIC ENERGY 149
  • What Is Physics? 149
  • What Is Energy? 149
  • Kinetic Energy 150
  • 7-2 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY 151
  • Work 151
  • Work and Kinetic Energy 152
  • 7-3 WORK DONE BY THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE 155 Work Done by the Gravitational Force 156
  • 7-4 WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE 159 Work Done by a Spring Force 159
  • 7-5 WORK DONE BY A GENERAL VARIABLE FORCE 162 Work Done by a General Variable Force 162
  • 7-6 POWER 166
  • Power 166
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 168 QUESTIONS 169 PROBLEMS 170
  • Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 177
  • 8-1 POTENTIAL ENERGY 177
  • What Is Physics? 177
  • Work and Potential Energy 178
  • Path Independence of Conservative Forces 179 Determining Potential Energy Values 181
  • 8-2 CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY 184 Conservation of Mechanical Energy 184
  • 8-3 READING A POTENTIAL ENERGY CURVE 187 Reading a Potential Energy Curve
  • 8-4 WORK DONE ON A SYSTEM BY AN EXTERNAL FORCE 191
  • Work Done on a System by an External Force 192
  • 8-5 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 195
  • Conservation of Energy 195
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 199 QUESTIONS 200
  • PROBLEMS 202
  • Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 214
  • 9-1 CENTER OF MASS
  • What is Physics? 214
  • The Center of Mass 215
  • 9-2 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 220
  • Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles 220
  • 9-3 LINEAR MOMENTUM 224
  • Linear Momentum 224
  • The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles 225
  • 9-4 COLLISION AND IMPULSE 226 Collision and Impulse 226
  • 9-5 CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM 230 Conservation of Linear Momentum
  • 9-6 MOMENTUM AND KINETIC ENERGY IN COLLISIONS 233
  • Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions 233 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 234
  • 9-7 ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN ONE DIMENSION 237 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
  • 9-8 COLLISIONS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 240 Collisions in Two Dimensions 240
  • 9-9 SYSTEMS WITH VARYING MASS: A ROCKET 241 Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket 241
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 243 QUESTIONS 245 PROBLEMS 246
  • Rotation
  • 10-1 ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 257
  • What Is Physics? 258
  • Rotational Variables 259
  • Are Angular Quantities Vectors? 264
  • 10-2 ROTATION WITH CONSTANT ANGULAR
  • ACCELERATION
  • Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration 266________________
  • 10-3 RELATING THE LINEAR AND ANGULAR
  • VARIABLES
  • 268
  • Relating the Linear and Angular Variables 268 10-4 KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION 271 Kinetic Energy of Rotation 271
  • 10-5 CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 273 Calculating the Rotational Inertia 273
  • 10-6 TORQUE 277
  • Torque 278
  • 10-7 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR ROTATION 279 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 279
  • 10-8 WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 282 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 282
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 285 QUESTIONS 286 PROBLEMS 287
  • Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum 295 11-1 ROLLING AS TRANSLATION AND ROTATION COMBINED 295
  • What Is Physics? 295
  • Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 205
  • 11-2 FORCES AND KINETIC ENERGY OF ROLLING 298
  • The Kinetic Energy of Rolling 298 The Forces of Rolling 299
  • 11-3 THE YO-YO 301
  • The Yo-Yo 302
  • 11-4 TORQUE REVISITED 302
  • Torque Revisited 303
  • 11-5 ANGULAR MOMENTUM 305
  • Angular Momentum 305
  • 11-6 NEWTON’S SECOND LAW IN ANGULAR FORM 307 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form 307
  • 11-7 ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A RIGID BODY 310 The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles 310 The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis 311
  • 11-8 CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 312 Conservation of Angular Momentum 312
  • 11-9 PRECESSION OF A GYROSCOPE 317
  • Precession of a Gyroscope 317
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 318
  • QUESTIONS 319 PROBLEMS 320
  • Equilibrium and Elasticity 327 12-1 EQUILIBRIUM 327
  • What Is Physics? 327 Equilibrium
  • The Requirements of Equilibrium 329 The Center of Gravity 330
  • 12-2 SOME EXAMPLES OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 332 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 332
  • 12-3 ELASTICITY 338 Indeterminate Structures 338
  • Elasticity 339
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 343
  • Gravitation
  • QUESTIONS 343 PROBLEMS 345
  • 13-1 NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITATION 354 What Is Physics? 354
  • Newton’s Law of Gravitation ass
  • 13-2 GRAVITATION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION 357
  • Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition 357
  • 13-3 GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE 359 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 360
  • 13-4 GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH 362 Gravitation Inside Earth 363
  • 13-5 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 364 Gravitational Potential Energy 364
  • 13-6 PLANETS AND SATELLITES: KEPLER’S LAWS Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 369
  • 13-7 SATELLITES: ORBITS AND ENERGY 371 Satellites: Orbits and Energy 371
  • 13-8 EINSTEIN AND GRAVITATION 374 Einstein and Gravitation 374
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 376 QUESTIONS 377
  • Fluids 386
  • PROBLEMS 378
  • 14-1 FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE 386 What Is Physics? 386
  • What Is a Fluid? 386
  • Density and Pressure 387
  • 14-2 FLUIDS AT REST 388 Fluids at Rest 389________________
  • 14-3 MEASURING PRESSURE 392 Measuring Pressure 392
  • 14-4 PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE 393
  • Pascal’s Principle 393
  • 14-5 ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE 394
  • Archimedes’ Principle 395
  • 14-6 THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY 398
  • Ideal Fluids in Motion 398
  • The Equation of Continuity 399
  • 14-7 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION 401
  • Bernoulli’s Equation 401
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 405 QUESTIONS 405 PROBLEMS 406
  • Oscillations 413
  • 15-1 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 413
  • What Is Physics? 414
  • 16-3 ENERGY AND POWER OF A WAVE TRAVELING ALONG
  • A STRING
  • Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String 454
  • 16-4 THE WAVE EQUATION 456
  • The Wave Equation 456
  • 16-5 INTERFERENCE OF WAVES 458
  • The Principle of Superposition for Waves 458 Interference of Waves 459
  • 16-6 PHASORS 462
  • Phasors 462
  • 16-7 STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 465 Standing Waves 465
  • Standing Waves and Resonance 467
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 470 QUESTIONS 471
  • 17 Waves-
  • PROBLEMS 472
  • Simple Harmonic Motion 414
  • The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion 419
  • 15-2 ENERGY IN SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
  • Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 421
  • 15-3 AN ANGULAR SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
  • An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 423
  • 15-4 PENDULUMS, CIRCULAR MOTION 424 Pendulums 425
  • Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion 428
  • 15-5 DAMPED SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 430 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 430
  • 15-6 FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND RESONANCE 432 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 432
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 434 QUESTIONS 434 PROBLEMS 436
  • Waves-
  • 16-1 TRANSVERSE WAVES 444
  • What Is Physics? 445
  • Types of Waves 445
  • Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 445
  • Wavelength and Frequency 446
  • The Speed of a Traveling Wave 449
  • 16-2 WAVE SPEED ON A STRETCHED STRING 452
  • Wave Speed on a Stretched String 452
  • 17-1 SPEED OF SOUND 479
  • What Is Physics? 479
  • Sound Waves
  • The Speed of Sound 480
  • 17-2 TRAVELING SOUND WAVES 482 Traveling Sound Waves 482
  • 17-3 INTERFERENCE 485 Interference 485
  • 17-4 INTENSITY AND SOUND LEVEL 488 Intensity and Sound Level 489
  • 17-5 SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND 492 Sources of Musical Sound 493
  • 17-6 BEATS 496
  • Beats 497
  • 17-7 THE DOPPLER EFFECT 498
  • The Doppler Effect 499
  • 17-8 SUPERSONIC SPEEDS, SHOCK WAVES 503
  • Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 503
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 504 QUESTIONS 505 PROBLEMS 506
  • 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of
  • Thermodynamics 514
  • 18-1 TEMPERATURE
  • What Is Physics? 514
  • Temperature 515
  • The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 515
  • Measuring Temperature 516
  • 18-2 THE CELSIUS AND FAHRENHEIT SCALES 518
  • The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 518
  • 18-3 THERMAL EXPANSION 520
  • Thermal Expansion 520
  • 18-4 ABSORPTION OF HEAT 522
  • Temperature and Heat 523
  • The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids 524
  • 18-5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 528
  • A Closer Look at Heat and Work 528 The First Law of Thermodynamics 531 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics 532
  • 18-6 HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS 534
  • 19-9 THE ADIABATIC EXPANSION OF AN IDEAL GAS 571
  • The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas 571
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 575 QUESTIONS 576 PROBLEMS 577
  • 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 583
  • 20-1 ENTROPY 583
  • What Is Physics? 584
  • Irreversible Processes and Entropy 584 Change in Entropy 585
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics 588
  • 20-2 ENTROPY IN THE REAL WORLD: ENGINES 590
  • Entropy in the Real World: Engines 590
  • 20-3 REFRIGERATORS AND REAL ENGINES 595
  • Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators 596 The Efficiencies of Real Engines 597
  • Heat Transfer Mechanisms
  • 534
  • 20-4 A STATISTICAL VIEW OF ENTROPY 598
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 538
  • QUESTIONS 540 PROBLEMS 541
  • A Statistical View of Entropy 598
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 602 QUESTIONS 603
  • PROBLEMS 604
  • 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 549
  • 19-1 AVOGADRO’S NUMBER 549
  • What Is Physics? 549
  • Avogadro’s Number 550
  • 19-2 IDEAL GASES 550
  • Ideal Gases 551
  • 19-3 PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND RMS SPEED 554
  • Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed 554
  • 19-4 TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 557 Translational Kinetic Energy 557
  • 19-5 MEAN FREE PATH 558
  • Mean Free Path 558
  • 19-6 THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR SPEEDS The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 561
  • 19-7 THE MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS OF
  • AN IDEAL GAS 564
  • The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas 564
  • 19-8 DEGREES OF FREEDOM AND MOLAR SPECIFIC HEATS 568
  • Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 568 A Hint of Quantum Theory 570
  • 560
  • 21 Coulomb’s Law 609
  • 21-1 COULOMB’S LAW 609
  • What Is Physics? 610
  • Electric Charge 610
  • Conductors and Insulators 612 Coulomb’s Law 613
  • 21-2 CHARGE IS QUANTIZED 619 Charge Is Quantized 619
  • 21-3 CHARGE IS CONSERVED 621
  • Charge Is Conserved 621
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 622 QUESTIONS 623 PROBLEMS 624
  • 22 Electric Fields 630
  • 22-1 THE ELECTRIC FIELD 630
  • What Is Physics? 630
  • The Electric Field 631
  • Electric Field Lines 631
  • 22-2 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE 633
  • The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge 633
  • 22-3 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A DIPOLE 635
  • The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole 636________________
  • CONTENTS
  • xi
  • 22-4 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A LINE OF CHARGE 638 The Electric Field Due to Line of Charge 638
  • 22-5 THE ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A CHARGED DISK 643 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk 643
  • 22-6 A POINT CHARGE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 645 A Point Charge in an Electric Field 645
  • 22-7 A DIPOLE IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 647
  • A Dipole in an Electric Field 648
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 650 QUESTIONS 651 PROBLEMS 652
  • 23 Gauss’ Law 659
  • 23-1 ELECTRIC FLUX 659
  • What Is Physics? 659
  • Electric Flux 660
  • 23-2 GAUSS’ LAW 664
  • Gauss’ Law 664
  • Gauss’ Law and Coulomb’s Law 666
  • 23-3 A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR 668
  • A Charged Isolated Conductor 668
  • 23-4 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY 671
  • Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 671
  • 23-5 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: PLANAR SYMMETRY 673 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 673
  • 23-6 APPLYING GAUSS’ LAW: SPHERICAL SYMMETRY 675 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 675
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 677 QUESTIONS 677 PROBLEMS 679
  • 24 Electric Potential
  • 24-1 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 685
  • What Is Physics? 685
  • Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy 686
  • 24-2 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD 690
  • Equipotential Surfaces 690
  • Calculating the Potential from the Field 691
  • 24-3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CHARGED PARTICLE 694 Potential Due to a Charged Particle 694 Potential Due to a Group of Charged Particles 695
  • 24-4 POTENTIAL DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE 697 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole 697
  • 24-5 POTENTIAL DUE TO A CONTINUOUS CHARGE DISTRIBUTION 698
  • Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution 698
  • 24-6 CALCULATING THE FIELD FROM THE POTENTIAL 701 Calculating the Field from the Potential 701
  • 24-7 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF CHARGED PARTICLES 703
  • Electric Potential Energy of a System of Charged Particles 703
  • 24-8 POTENTIAL OF A CHARGED ISOLATED CONDUCTOR 706 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor 706
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 707 QUESTIONS 708 PROBLEMS 710
  • 25 Capacitance 717
  • 25-1 CAPACITANCE 717
  • What Is Physics? 717
  • Capacitance 717
  • 25-2 CALCULATING THE CAPACITANCE 719 Calculating the Capacitance 720
  • 25-3 CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL AND IN SERIES 723 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 724
  • 25-4 ENERGY STORED IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 728 Energy Stored in an Electric Field 728
  • 25-5 CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC 731 Capacitor with a Dielectric 731 Dielectrics: An Atomic View 733
  • 25-6 DIELECTRICS AND GAUSS’ LAW 735 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 735
  • REVIEW & SUMMARY 738 QUESTIONS 738 PROBLEMS 739
  • 26 Current and Resistance 745
  • 26-1 ELECTRIC CURRENT 745
  • What Is Physics? 745
  • Electric Current 746
  • 26-2 CURRENT DENSITY 748 Current Density 749
  • 26-3 RESISTANCE AND RESISTIVITY 752 Resistance and Resistivity 753
  • 26-4 OHM’S LAW 756
  • Ohm’s Law 756
  • A Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law 758

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