• Book Title:
 Ibn Arabi Time And Cosmology
  • Book Author:
Mohamed Haj Yousef
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Cosmology and time

Cosmology is the science that studies the universe, the cosmos. Cosmos is a word used in earlier Greek metaphysical thought that means ‘harmony’ or ‘order’, as opposed to chaos. In one Greek theory of creation, chaos is the form- less matter from which the cosmos, or harmonious order, was created (EP: ‘Cosmology’, II: 237–244; ‘Chaos and Cosmos’, II: 80–81).

And time is one of the most fundamental issues in philosophy and cosmology, since the whole of existence is nothing but consecutive series of events in time. Everybody feels time, but most people do not question it because it is commonly experienced everyday in many things and is so familiar. However, it is far more to difficult to understand the philosophical nature of time and its characteristics

Throughout the history of philosophy, many opposing views have emerged to discuss and describe the different aspects of time, and some novel hypotheses have eventually emerged in modern cosmology. However, it is still the dream of every physicist to unveil the reality of time, especially since all modern theories have come to the conclusion that time is the key.

1.1 A brief overview of early cosmological models

Beginning in the twelfth century, Arab scholars, scribes and various translators gradually introduced Europe to the science of astronomy as it had developed in Islamic civilization, based on earlier Hellenistic models (primarily Ptolemy and Aristotle).

But once the Catholic Church had decided to adopt the Ptolemaic or Aristotelian geocentric1 cosmological model as a theological principle, it consid- ered scientists who criticized this model as heretics.

 Therefore, the Polish scientist Nicolai Copernicus (AD 1473–1544) circulated his heliocentric model anonymously, and his book De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (‘On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs’), was not published until 1543, just one year before his death. In this model, Copernicus postulated that the Sun and the stars are stationary and the Earth and the planets circulated around the Sun in circular orbits.2

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It was not until 1609, when Galileo invented the telescope, that Aristotle’s and Ptolemy’s geocentric model of the universe was completely discarded by knowledgeable researchers, and replaced by the heliocentric model (Drake 1990:……

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