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Islamic Legal Rulings on Fasting pdf download siyam

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 Islamic Legal Rulings On Fasting
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Virtues of the Month of Ramadan

Allah has singled out the month of Ramadan with many virtues, and these virtues are specific to the month of Ramadan. These include:

  1. The angels seek forgiveness on behalf of those fasting until they break their fast.
  2. In this month, recalcitrant devils are put to shackles.
  3. It contains Lailatul-Qadr (night of power or decree) which is better than a thousand nights.
  4. People observing fast are granted forgiveness at the last night of the month of Ramadan.
  5. Every night in Ramadan Allah redeems some people from the Hellfire.
  6. Performing ‘Umrah in Ramadan is equivalent to a Hajj.

Moreover, regarding the virtue of this noble month, Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to have said, “Whoever fasts Ramadaan out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.” [Agreed upon: 38, 760].

In another tradition, the Messenger of Allah (May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “Every deed of the son of Adam will be multiplied for him, between ten and seven hundred times for each merit. Allah said: ‘Except for fasting, for it is for Me and I shall reward for it.’” [Agreed upon: 5927, 1151].

Confirmation of the Beginning of Ramadan

The following two methods confirm the month of Ramadan:

1. The sighting of the crescent of Ramadan. When the crescent is sighted, it becomes compulsory to fast. The Prophet (May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “When you see the crescent then fast, and when you see it (at the end of the month), then stop fasting.” [Agreed upon: 1900, 1080].

The sighting of one trustworthy and adult Muslim is adequate to prove and confirm the month of Ramadan. However, the confirmation of the sighting of the crescent of the month of Shawwal must be through the testimony of two trustworthy and adult Muslims.

2. If the crescent is not sited the night before the 30th of Sha’ban, then we complete the month of Sha’ban thirty days. When it is completed, the thirty-first day becomes the first day of the month adan due to the saying of the Messenger of Allah (may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), “If the new moon is obscured from you (i.e. if it is cloudy), then complete a full thirty days.” [Agreed upon: 1907, 1081].

Those permitted not to observe fast:

1. Someone who is sick with a non-chronic illness, but fasting is too difficult for him is permitted to not fast and to make up the days he did not fast. The one who is ill with a chronic illness that does not permit him to fast is not obliged to fast. However, he should feed a

needy person giving a kilogram and a half of rice or any other food per person. He may also prepare food and invite needy people according to the number of days he did not fast.

A traveler is allowed not to fast right from when he leaves his home until he returns as long as he did not intend residing there.

Likewise, a pregnant or nursing woman is allowed to break fast if she fears for herself or her baby. However, when this excuse is over, she should make up for the

days she did not fast…..

That which invalidates the Fast

1. Deliberate eating or drinking.

Eating out of forgetfulness does not affect one’s fast, as the Prophet said, “Whoever forgets that he is fasting, and eats or drinks, is to complete his fast[Sahih Muslim: 1155 ].

Nullifications of the fast include

when water reaches the abdomen through the nose, the act of taking drips via the veins and injecting blood. All these invalidate the fast because they are means of nutrition for the fasting person.

2. Engaging in sexual intercourse: when a fasting person has sexual intercourse, his fast becomes invalid and he must make up that day, as well as perform a specific expiation for it. The expiation is to free a slave. If he cannot find one, he should fast for two months consecutively. During these two months, he is allowed to break the fast except for a legal excuse such as the days of the two Eids, Tashreeq (the 11th,12th, 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) or for some perceivable excuse like a sickness or a journey that is not meant just for the purpose of breaking the fast. If he breaks his fast even for a day without any legal reason, he should begin the fast again to achieve the consecutiveness.

However, if he is unable to fast for two consecutive months, he should feed sixty needy people.

3. Premeditated discharge of semen through kissing, masturbation (to learn mor)or any other means. All these invalidate the fast and he must make up for those days. There is no expiation for such an act, but he must repent to Allah. A wet dream does not invalidate the fast.

4. Extracting blood from the body through cupping or for donation invalidates the fast, though. Extracting little blood for clinical test does not invalidate the fast. Similarly, is the unintentional emission of blood like in the case of a nose bleed or wound, or doffing of a tooth. Such does not invalidate fast.

5. Deliberate vomiting. If someone vomits unintentionally, there is no problem.

None of these invalidators renders one’s fast invalid except when he does them knowingly and intentionally. If he is ignorant of their legal ruling or ignorant of the time, such as when he thinks that the dawn has not yet broken or thinks that the sun has set and the like, then his fast remains valid. Similarly, when he forgets, his fast remains valid.

It is only when he intends breaking the fast that the fasting becomes invalid. However, if he is obliged or compelled, his fasting remains valid and he does not have to make it up.

6. Invalidators of the fast also include the emission of menstrual blood or postpartum bleeding. Whenever a woman notices the blood, her fast becomes invalid. Moreover, it is prohibited for her to fast in the state of menstruation or postnatal bleeding but she must make up for those days after the month of Ramadan.

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