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The Abridgement of al-Akhdari- Mukhtasar al-Akhdari – Summary on ‘Ibadat according to the School of Imam Malik 

  • Book Title:
 Mukhtasar Al Akhdari English
  • Book Author:
Abdul Rahman al-Akhdari
  • Total Pages
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1 Mb
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Introduction – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

Praise be to Allah the Lord of Creation.  Prayers and peace be upon our Master Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the Messengers. 

The first obligation upon the responsible one is to correct his faith.  Then [he must] know what is necessary to correct his farḍ ʿayn, such as the rules of prayer, purification and fasting.  The responsible one is obligated to preserve the boundaries of Allāh  and observe His commands and prohibitions.  The responsible one must repent before Allāh  becomes angry with him.  

The conditions of repentance (tawbah) are:

  1. Remorse over what was done,
  2. An intention never to return to the sin for the rest of his life, and
  3. To leave the sin immediately if he was in the midst of performing it.

It is not permissible to delay repentance (tawbah) nor to say, “I will repent once Allāh  guides me.”   Verily this is from amongst the signs of wretchedness (shaqā’), abandonment (khudhlān), and blinding of the spiritual inner sight (baṣīra). 

It is an obligation for the responsible one to protect his tongue from:

  1. Foul speech
  2. Evil speech
  3. Ugly words
  4. Swearing by divorce
  5. Ridiculing a Muslim
  6. Mocking a Muslim
  7. Cursing a Muslim
  8. Frightening a Muslim without a valid reason.

It is an obligation upon the responsible one to protect his eyes from looking at the prohibited.  It is not permissible for him to look at a Muslim in a way that harms him.  This is unless the person is a transgressor (fāsiq) in which case one must not keep his company.

What is prohibited to a Muslim

It is an obligation upon the responsible one to protect his limbs to the best of his ability.  He must love, hate, be pleased and be angry for the sake of Allāh . The responsible one must enjoin righteousness and forbid evil.  He is prohibited from:

  1. Lying  (kadhib)
  2. Backbiting (ghība)
  3. Carrying tales (namīma)
  4. Arrogance (kibr)
  5. Vanity (ʿujb)
  6. Showing off (rīyā’)
  7. Bragging (sumʿa)
  8. Jealousy (ḥasad)
  9. Hate (bughd)
  10. Seeing oneself as being better than others
  11. (ru’yatul fadl alal ghayr)
  12. Winking and pointing [in mockery] (al hamzu wal lamzu)
  13. Frivolity (ʿabath)
  14. Mockery (sukhriyya)
  15. Fornication and adultery (zinā)
  16. Looking at a marriageable female (ajnabiyya)
  17. Deriving pleasure from her voice
  18. Consuming the wealth of people without their contentment
  19. Gaining income through intercession or the religion.
  20. Delaying the prayer beyond its proper times.

It is not permissible to befriend a transgressor (fāsiq) nor to sit with him, unless there is a necessity.  The responsible one should not seek the acceptance of the creation by angering the Creator.  Allāh  has said, “Allah and His Messenger are more worthy of being pleased, if they were truly believers” (Quran 9:62).  The Messenger of Allāh  said, “There is no obedience to a creature in that which is disobedience to the Creator.”  It is not permissible for the responsible one to do anything until he knows what Allāh has ordained in that matter.  He must ask the scholars and follow the ones who:

  1. Implement the way (sunna) of the Prophet 
  2. Guide to the obedience of Allāh 
  3. And warn people from following the devil.

The responsible one must not be content with that which satisfies the bankrupt ones who have wasted their lives in other than obedience to Allāh .  O how much are they in loss and how long their weeping will be on the Day of Judgment!  We ask Allāh  to grant us success in following the way

(sunna) of our Prophet, Intercessor and Master Muhammad . 

Section of Purification (Ṭahara)

Purification (ṭahara) is two types:

  1. Purification from ḥadath
  2. Purification from filth (khabath)

Purification from both types is not achieved except with pure and purifying water.  It is water that has not changed in either its color, taste or smell by something that is not normally a part of it such as:

  1. Oil
  2. Fat
  3. Grease
  4. Grime
  5. Soap
  6. Filth
  7. And the like

There is no harm with:

  1. Dirt
  2. Mud
  3. Salt
  4. Plaster
  5. And the like

Spot of an impurity (najāsa) – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

If the spot where an impurity (najāsa) affects is known, that place is washed.  If the place is not known, the entire garment is washed.  If one is in doubt about whether an impurity has affected an area, he must sprinkle water on that area (naḍh).  If one is affected by something that he is unsure whether or not it is an impurity, he does not have to sprinkle water.  If one remembers an impurity during a prayer, he must cut it off, unless he fears losing the prayer time.  If one prays with an impurity out of forgetfulness and remembers after the salām of the prayer he should repeat the prayer if the time is still in. 

The obligations (farḍ) of ablution

The obligations (farḍ) of ablution (wuḍū’) are seven:

  1. An intention
  2. Washing the face
  3. Washing the arms up to [and including] the elbows
  4. Wiping the head
  5. Washing the feet up to [and including] the ankles
  6. Rubbing
  7. Continuity

The Prophetic traditions (sunna) of wuḍū’ are:

  1. Washing the hands up to the wrist at the beginning of the wuḍū’
  2. Rinsing the mouth
  3. Sniffing water into the nose
  4. Blowing water out of the nose
  5. A return wipe of the head
  6. Wiping the ears
  7. Renewing the water for wiping the ears
  8. Keeping the obligations in order

If one forgets an obligatory (farḍ) limb, he should:

  1. Wash that limb and the limbs that are after it, if he remembers soon after
  2. Wash only that limb if a long time has passed and then repeat any prayers that he performed with that wudu.

If one forgot a sunna, then he only performs what was missed and does not need to repeat the prayer.  If a person missed a portion of a limb, he must wash that portion with an intention.  If he had prayed before washing that portion he must repeat the prayer.  If one remembers not having rinsed the mouth or nose after he began washing his face, he should not return to what he forgot until he has completed his wuḍū’. 

  1. Beginning with the name of Allah (bismillāh)
  2. Brushing the teeth
  3. A second and third washing for the face and hands
  4. Beginning with the front portion of the head (when wiping)
  5. Maintaining order between the sunnas
  6. Using as little water as possible
  7. Washing the right limb before the left.
  8. It is an obligation to rub in between the fingers.  It is recommended to rub in between the toes (but water must reach them).

It is an obligation to have water reach the skin under a light beard, but not a thick one.  Water must reach the skin under a beard during the full body wash (ghusl), even if the beard is thick.  

Nullifiers of Wudhu – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

The things which nullify wuḍū’ are:

  1. Direct nullifiers (aḥdāth)
  2. Causes (asbāb)

The aḥdāth are:

  1. Urination
  2. Defecation
  3. Passing wind
  4. Madhy
  5. Wady

The asbāb are:

  1. Heavy sleep
  2. Unconsciousness
  3. Intoxication
  4. Insanity
  5. Kissing
  6. Touching a woman if pleasure was intended or found
  7. Touching the penis with the inside [or sides] of the hand [i.e. palm] and fingers.

If a person has a doubt about a ḥadath, he must perform wuḍū’.   This is unless he has constant doubt (waswasa), in which case he does not have to do anything.  One must wash the entire penis if he experiences madhy, but does not have to wash the testicles.  Madhy is the emission that occurs when one has minor pleasure by thinking, looking, or the like.     

What is prohibited to one without ablution

It is not permissible for one who does not have wuḍū’ to:

  1. Pray.
  2. Perform ṭawāf (circuits around the kaʾbah).
  3. Touch a copy of the Qur’ān or its cover with his hand, a stick or the like.  This is with the exception of a portion of the Qur’ān that he is studying from.
  4. Touch a tablet (lawḥ) that has Qur’ān written on it unless one is a student or a teacher that is correcting him.

A child in regards to the rules of touching the Qur’ān is the same as the adult, but the sin would be on the one who allowed the child to touch it.  Whoever intentionally prays without wuḍū’ is a nonbeliever (kāfir) and we seek refuge in Allāh from this.  


A full body wash (ghusl) is necessary due to three things:

  1. Janaba
  2. Ḥayḍ
  3. Nifās

Janaba is of  two types:

  1. The exiting of semen (many) with normal pleasure in sleep or a waken state through intercourse or other means.
  2. The entrance of the glans of the penis into the vagina

If one sees himself in a dream having intercourse but there is not emission of seminal fluid (many), then he does not have to do anything.  If one finds dry semen on his clothes but does not know when it occurred, he must perform the ghusl and repeat all prayers performed from the last time he slept.   

Obligations of ghusl – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

The obligations of ghusl are:

  1. An intention at the beginning
  2. Continuity
  3. Rubbing
  4. Covering [the body with water]

The sunnas of ghusl are:

  1. Washing the hands up to the wrists, as in wuḍū’
  2. Rinsing the mouth
  3. Sniffing water into the nose
  4. Blowing water out of the nose
  5. Washing the ṣimākh of the ears, and it is the outer ear canal.  As for the ear lobe, one must wash the outer and inner portion.

The recommended actions of ghusl are:

  1. Beginning by washing the impurity (najāsa)
  2. Then washing the penis, and making the intention at that point.
  3. Washing the limbs of wuḍū’ once each
  4. Then washing the top portion of his body
  5. Washing the head three times
  6. Washing the right portion of the body first
  7. Using as little water as needed when washing the limbs

If one forgets to wash a portion of his body or an entire limb during his ghusl, he should wash that immediately after he remembers, even if it is after one month.  He then must repeat all prayers [made with that ghusl].  If he delays washing the area once he remembers it, his ghusl is invalid.  If the missed portion was in the limbs of wuḍū’ and it was washed during wuḍū’, that is sufficient.  

Entering mosque with Janaba

It is not permissible for a person in the state of janaba to enter a masjid or to recite the Qur’ān, except for an ayah or the like for the purpose of protection.  It is not permissible for the person who is not able to use cold water to go to his wife until he prepares the tools [needed to heat the water].  If he has a nocturnal emission then there nothing is required of him.  

Section on Tayammum [Dry Ablution With Pure Earth]  – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

A traveler may perform tayammum, if he is not being disobedient in his travels [and does not have any water].  The sick person may perform tayammum for an obligatory prayer (farḍ) or a recommended prayer (nāfila).  The healthy resident may perform tayammum, if he fears that he will lose the time of the prayer.  The healthy resident may not perform tayammum for a recommended prayer, jumuʿa, or a funeral prayer (janāza), except if [in the last case] it was an obligation upon him.  

The obligations of tayammum are:

  1. Intention
  2. Pure earth (ṣaʿīd)
  3. Wiping the face
  4. Wiping the hands to the wrists
  5. The first contact with the earth
  6. Continuity
  7. The time of the prayer being in
  8. That the tayammum is connected to the prayer without interruption

The pure earth (ṣaʿīd) is:

  1. Dirt
  2. Adobe brick [unbaked]
  3. Rock
  4. Snow
  5. Mud and the like

It is not permissible to perform tayammum on:

  1. Cooked plaster
  2. Straw mats
  3. Wood
  4. Grass and the like

There is a dispensation for the sick person to use a stone or adobe wall if he cannot find someone to get him something else.

The sunna of tayammum are:

  1. Contacting the earth a second time for wiping his hands
  2. Wiping between the wrists and the elbows
  3. Maintaining the order

The recommended acts of tayammum are:

  1. Saying bismillah
  2. Wiping the right hand before the left
  3. Wiping the outer portion of the arms before the inner portion.
  4. Wiping the front part before the end part.

The things that invalidate tayammum are like wuḍū’.  Two farḍ prayers cannot be prayed with one tayammum.  The one who performs tayammum for a farḍ prayer may pray nāfila prayers after it, touch the Qur’ān, make ṭawāf, and recite [Qur’ān] if:

  1. He had intended that,
  2. This is done immediately after the prayer, and
  3. The time of the prayer has not exited

Tayammum for a nāfila makes all the aforementioned permissible except a farḍ prayer.  Whoever prays  ʿIshā’ with tayammum is allowed to pray shafiʾ and witr afterwards if there is no delay.  If one is making tayammum while in a state of janāba, there must be that specific intention.  

Ḥayḍ (Menstruation)

Women are either:

  1. Experiencing ḥayd for the first time
  2. Having a regular period, or
  3. Pregnant

The longest a woman’s first menstrual cycle can be is 15 days.  The [most for a] for a woman with a regular cycle is her normal period.  If the blood continues to flow, then she would add 3 days to [her longest] cycle as long as it does not make it more than 15 days.  For the pregnant woman, if it is after:

  1. Three months, she adds 15 days and “the like” (totaling 20 days)
  2. Six months, she adds 20 days and “the like” (totaling 30 days)

If the blood cuts off intermittently, then she adds up the days until she completes her usual duration.  It is not permissible for a menstruating woman to pray, fast, perform ṭawāf, touch a copy of the Qur’ān or enter a masjid.  She must make up her fasts, but not her prayers.  It is permissible for her to recite Qur’ān.  It is not permissible for her husband to touch her vagina or what is between the umbilicus (belly button) and the knees until she performs a ghusl.  

Post Partum Discharge (Nifās) – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

Nifās is like ḥayḍ conerning what is prevented by it.  The most that it can be is 60 days.  If the blood cuts off before that, even if on the day of the birth, then she performs ghusl and prays.  If the blood returns and 15 days had gone by, then the second blood is ḥayḍ.  Otherwise, she adds it to the previous days and it is a completion of her nifās.    

Section on the Prayer Times

The preferred time (mukhtar) for dhuhr begins from the post-zenith (zawāl) of the sun. It continues until the length of the shadow equals the post-zenith

(zawāl) shadow plus the length of the object

[measured].  The mukhtar for ʿasr is from the end of dhuhr until the yellowing period.  The necessary

(ḍarūrī) of both prayers is until sunset.  The mukhtār of maghrib is from sunset and continues for the time it would take to perform the prayer after fulfilling its conditions.  The mukhtār of ʿIshā’ is from the setting of the redness in the sky until the first third of the night.  The ḍarūrī of both prayers is until the first light of dawn (fajr).  The mukhtār of the morning prayer (ṣubḥ) is from the first light of dawn (fajr) until clear light (isfār).  Its ḍarūrī is until the rising of the sun.  Prayers are considered make-up (qaḍā’) after all of those aforementioned times. 

If one delays a prayer until its time has exited, then he has upon him a grand sin, unless he forgot or was asleep.  Nāfila prayers are not performed after:

  1. The morning prayer (ṣubḥ) until the sun has risen
  2. After ʿasr prayer until the prayer of maghrib
  3. After the first light of dawn, except for a regular routine of prayers that one overslept and was not able to perform
  4. When the Imam of the Friday prayer sits on the minbar.
  5. After the jumuʿa prayer until he leaves the masjid

Section on the Conditions of the Prayer

The conditions for the prayer are:

  1. Purity from ḥadath (in need of wudu or ghusl)
  2. Purity from khabath (impurities) on one’s body, clothing and place of prayer
  3. Covering the nakedness (ʿawra)
  4. Facing the qibla (direction of Mecca)
  5. Leaving speech
  6. Leaving excessive actions

The nakedness (ʿawra) of a man is between his umbilicus and his knees.  The entire body of a woman is nakedness, except for her face and her hands.  Prayer is disliked [for a man] if performed while wearing only pants [i.e. bare-chested] unless there is something over it [i.e. a shirt or a shawl]. If one gets impurities on his clothing, cannot find something else to wear or water to wash it, and does not have another garment to wear while he washes it, then he can pray with the impurity.  It is not permissible to delay the prayer because of lack of purity, and whoever does that has disobeyed his Lord.  

The one who does not find any clothing to cover his nakedness prays naked.  Whoever makes a mistake in regards to the qibla should repeat if there is still time.  Every repetition of the prayer is a virtuous act (faḍīla).  For everything that would cause one to repeat the prayer does not apply to missed prayers or nafila prayers.  


The obligations of prayer are:

  1. An intention of the specific prayer
  2. The takbīr of iḥrām
  3. Standing for the Takbīr of iḥrām
  4. Fātiḥā
  5. Standing for the fātiḥa
  6. Bowing
  7. Rising from the bowing
  8. Prostrating on the forehead
  9. Rising from the prostration
  10. Standing upright
  11. Stillness
  12. Maintaining the order of the obligations
  13. The final salām
  14. The sitting that is needed for the final salām

The condition of the intention is that it is directly linked to the takbīr of iḥrām.

The sunna of the prayer are:

  1. Saying the iqama
  2. Reciting a sūra after the fātiḥa
  3. Standing for the sūra
  4. Reciting silently where appropriate
  5. Reciting out loud where appropriate
  6. Saying samiʿa Allahu liman ḥamidahu
  7. Every takbīr except the first one
  8. Both tashah-huds
  9. Sitting for them
  10. Reciting the fātiḥa before the sūra
  11. The second and third salām for the one following an imam
  12. Saying only the obligatory salām audibly
  13. Sending prayers upon the Messenger of Allāh
  14. Prostrating on the nose, hands, knees and tips of the feet
  15. Using a sutra for other than the one following an imām.  The least that the sutra can be is:
    1. The thickness of a spear
    1. The length of a dhirāʾ (cubit)
    1. Pure
    1. Firmly grounded
    1. Not distracting
  1. Raising the hands during the opening takbīr until they are near the ears.
  2. Saying rabana wa laka al-ḥamd for the one praying behind an imam or one praying alone.
  3. Saying āmīn after the fātiḥa for the one praying alone or behind an imām. The imām does not say amīn except in the silent prayers.
  4. Tasbīḥ in the rukūʾ
  5. Supplication (dua) in sujūd
  6. Lengthening the recitation in Subḥ and Dhuhr prayers.
  7. Reciting short sūras in ʿAsr and Maghrib.
  8. Reciting medium length sūras in ʿIshā’.
  9. The first sūra should be before the second [in the order found in the Qurā’n].
  10. The first sūra should be longer than the second.
  11. Performing the well-known positions in the rukūʾ, sujūd, and sitting.
  12. The qunūt prayer done:
    1. Silently
    1. Before the rukūʾ
    1. After the sūra
    1. In the second rakʿa
    1. In the ṣubḥ prayer. It is permissible to be done after the rukūʾ
  13. Duʿā’ after the second tashah-hud.
  14. The second tashah-hud is longer than the first.
  15. Turning [the head] to the right during the Salām.
  16. Moving the index finger during the tashahhud.

Makruh acts in prayer

It is makrūh to:

  1. Look around during the prayer
  2. Close the eyes
  3. Say “bismillāh (basmalah)” or “aʿūdhu billahi min ash shayṭān ar rajīm (taʿawwudh)” during the farḍ prayer, but it is permissible during the nāfila
  4. Stand on one foot unless the prayer is long
  5. Put the feet together
  6. Put a coin or something else in the mouth
  7. Placing anything distracting in one’s pocket, sleeve or on the back
  8. Thinking about matters of the world (dunyā)
  9. Everything that would distract him from being in a humble state of humility in prayer.

Section  – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

Prayer has an immense light that causes the hearts of those who pray to radiate.  None will attain it except those who are fearful in their prayer. So, if you come to the prayer, empty your heart of the dunyā and what it contains.  Preoccupy yourself with your Lord the One to whom you are praying.  Believe that the prayer is submissiveness and humbleness to Allāh  through the standing, bowing and prostration.  It is exaltation and glorification of Allāh  through the takbīr, tasbīḥ and dhikr. 

So protect your prayer, as it is the greatest act of worship.  Do not allow the devil to play with your heart and distract you from the prayer to the point that your heart is blind and you are prevented from experiencing the pleasures of the lights of the prayer.  You must maintain khushūʾ (submissiveness) during the prayer, as the prayer prevents foul and evil acts because of that submissiveness.  Seek assistance from Allāh  and He is the Best Assister.

Seven ways of obligatory prayer – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

The obligatory prayer has seven ordered ways that it can be performed.  It is obligatory to keep four of them in order and recommended to keep three in order.  

  1. Standing without leaning on anything
  2. Standing while leaning on something
  3. Sitting without leaning on anything

Sitting while leaning on something ((It is obligatory to maintain order between these four.  If one is able to pray in one way and prays in a subsequent way, then his prayer is invalid.  The three that are recommended to keep in order for the one who is unable to pray in one of the four aforementioned fashions prays are to pray:

  • ))
  • On the right side
  • On the left side
  • On one’s back

If one does not maintain the order between these three, his prayer is valid.  The leaning that would invalidate the prayer (for the one who can do without it) is that which would cause a person to fall if that thing were to fall.   If a person would not fall with the falling of what he was leaning on then it is makrūh.  As for a nāfila prayer, it is permissible for the one who can stand to pray sitting down, but he gets only half of the reward of the one who stands. 

It is permissible to enter the prayer sitting and then stand thereafter or to enter it standing and then to sit thereafter.  But if he entered the prayer with the intention to perform it standing, in which case it would be prohibited for him to sit afterwards. 

Carelessness not acceptable in obligatory prayers – Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

   It is obligatory to make up any prayers that one owes, and it is not permissible to be careless in that.  Whoever makes up every day five days’ worth of missed prayers is not a careless person.  He must make them up in the order that he missed them. 

If the prayer was a traveler’s prayer, then he makes it up as a traveler’s prayer, regardless of whether he was a resident or a traveler when he was making up the prayer.  Maintaining the order between the two present prayers and between a small amount of prayers is obligatory, if one remembers.  A small amount of prayers is four. 

If a person owes four or less prayers, he must pray it before the present prayer, even if the time were to go out.  It is permissible to make up prayers at any time.  One who owes Qada for prayers is not to offer nafila prayers.  Thus, he is not to pray salatul duha or the nightly Ramadan prayers (tarawīh). 

The only thing that is permissible for him is shafiʾ and witr, fajr, the two ʿĪds, khusūf (the solar eclipse prayer) and istisqā’ (the drought prayer).   It is permissible for a group that owes the same prayer to pray in congregation if it is exactly the same prayer.  If a person forgets how many prayers are owed, he prays an amount that leaves no doubt.

Chapter on Sahw

The prostration of sahw in the prayer is a sunna.  For subtracting something from the prayer, one makes two prostrations (qablī) before the final salām and after the completion of the two tashah-huds.  He then makes another tasahah-hud and another salām.  For an addition, two prostrations after the salām (baʾdī) are made, then another tashah-hud and salām.    If one subtracts from and adds to the prayer, he should prostrates before the Salām.  

If one forgets the qablī and says the salām, he should prostrate, if a long time has not passed. If a long time has passed or he left the masjid, the prostration is invalid.  [In the case of leaving the qabli] the prayer is invalid if three or more sunnas were missed, but not if it was less than that.  If one forgets the baʾdī, he must prostrate it even if a year had passed.  If one misses an obligation from the prayer, then a prostration is not sufficient.  If one forgets a recommended act of the prayer, then there is no prostration.  

The qablī is performed due to missing two or more sunnas. As for one sunna, there is no prostration needed unless it was the silent or audible recitations.  So, whoever recites silently in an audible prayer should prostrate before the salām.  Whoever recites audibly in a silent prayer should prostrate after the salām.     

Who speaks forgetfully in Prayers

Whoever speaks out of forgetfulness must prostrate after the Salām.  If one says Salām forgetingly after two rakʿas, he should prostrate after the Salām.  If one adds one or two rakʿas to the prayer, he should prostrate after the Salām.  If one adds the same amount to the prayer, then it is invalid.  Whoever has doubt about something in his prayer must perform it.  Doubt in prayer is like certainty. 

So, whoever doubts about performing a rakʿa or sajda must perform it and prostrate after the Salām.  If one doubts about saying the Salām, he must say the Salām if it was nearby and there is no prostration.  If a long time has passed, then the prayer is invalid.  

The muwaswis (one with constant doubt) must remove the waswasa (whisperings) from his heart and not perform what he has doubts about.  But he prostrates after the Salām whether he doubted about an addition or subtraction.  If a person recites the qunūt audibly, there is no prostration required but it is disliked to do that intentionally. 

If a person adds a sūra in the last two rakʿas, there is no prostration owed.  If one hears the name of Muhāmmad  during the prayer and sends prayers upon him, he owes nothing.  This is whether he did it out of forgetfulness, or intentionally, while standing or sitting.  Nothing is owed if one:

  1. recites two or more sūras in one rakʿa
  2. began one sūra and then went to another sūra
  3. bowed before completing the sūra.

Motioning hand or head during prayers

If during the prayer one motions with his hand or head, nothing is owed.  If one repeats the fātiḥa out of forgetfulness, he prostrates after the Salām.  If it was done intentionally, then what is apparent is that the prayer is invalid. Whoever remembers the sūra after bowing in the rukūʾ must not return to recite it.  If one remembers the silent or audible recitations before the rukūʾ, he repeats the recitation. 

If that was only in the sūra, then he repeats the sūra and there is no prostration owed.  If that was in the fātiḥa, then he repeats it and prostrates after the salām.  If he loses the opputunity to repeat it, because he went into rukūʾ, then he would prostrate:

  1. before the Salām for leaving the audible recitation
  2. after the Salām for leaving the silent recitation

The above would be the ruling whether it was Fatiha or the Sura alone. Whoever laughs in the prayer invalidates it whether it was intentional or out of forgetfulness.  No one laughs in his prayer except a heedless fool.  If the believer stands for prayer, he removes from his heart everything other than Allāh .  He leaves the dunyā and what is in it until he has in his heart the grandness and exaltation of Allāh . 

And his heart shakes, his soul is frightened from the Awe of Allah (Exalted is His Grandness).  This is the prayer of those with taqwā.  There is nothing owed due to smiling.  The weeping in prayer of a humble person is forgiven.  Whoever listens a short while to someone speaking does not owe anything.  If one stands up before sitting, then if:

  1. he remembered before his hands and knees have left the ground, he returns and owes no prostration
  2. he has left the ground then he continues, does not return, and then prostrates before the salām.

If one returns to the ground after separating from it and standing up, whether unintentional or intentional, his prayer is sound and he prostrates after the prayer.  Whoever blows air out of forgetfulness during the prayer prostrates after the salām.  If that was done intentionally then his prayer is invalid.  If one sneezes during the prayer, he should not:

  1. concern himself with saying al-ḥamdullilāh
  2. Respond to the one who responded to him
  3. Respond to the one who sneezes

If he says al-ḥamdullilāh, then he owes nothing.  If one yawns during the prayer, he should cover his mouth.  One should not spit except in his clothing and without making a sound.   

If she doubts about a ritual impurity (hadath)

Whoever has doubt about a ritual impurity (hadath) or an impurity (najāsa), thinks about it for a short while, and ascertains purity then he owes nothing.  Whoever unintentionally looks around in his prayer owes nothing. If he did it intentionally then it is makrūh. 

If one turns his back to the qibla he must cut his prayer off.  If one prays wearing silk or gold, steals during the prayer, or looks at something prohibited then he has disobeyed but his prayer is valid.  If a person makes a mistake in the recitation using a word that is not from the Qur’ān, he prostrates after the salām.  If the word is from the Qur’ān, then he does not prostrate unless he changed the word or ruined the meaning in which case he would prostrate after the Salām.   

Whoever dozes off during the prayer does not owe a prostration.  If his sleep was heavy, then he repeats the prayer and wuḍū’.  The moaning of a sick person is forgiven.  Clearing one’s throat out of necessity is forgiven, but for communication is disliked and does not invalidate the prayer.

 If someone [praying] is called and he responds by saying “subḥān Allāh,” it is disliked, although his prayer is sound.  If one stops during his recitation and no one reminds him, he leaves that verse and recites what comes next.  If he cannot remember, then he makes rukūʾ.  

Looking at a copy of Quran

One should not look at a copy of the Qur’ān in front of him, unless it is the fātiḥa, which must be completed using a copy of the Qur’ān or some other means.    If one leaves out one verse from the fātiḥa, he prostrates before the salām.  If it is more than that, then the prayer is invalid.  Whoever corrects the recitation of other than his imām, then his prayer is invalid.  One should not correct the imām unless he waits for assistance or changes the meaning.  

Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

Whoever’s mind wanders for a short time about the matters of the dunyā, then his reward is reduced but his prayer is valid.  No prostration is owed in the following instances:

  1. Pushing someone away from walking in front of you
  2. Prostrating on the side of his forehead
  3. Prostrating on one or two layers of his turban.

There is nothing owed for involuntary emesis (vomit) or reflux.  The mistakes of a follower are carried by the imām, unless what was missed was an obligation.    If the follower is not paying attention, dozes off, or is crowded out of bowing and:

  1. Is in other than the first rakʿa, and
  2. Feels like he can catch up to the imām before the imām rises from the second prostration

then he makes rukūʾ and catches up to the imām.  If he does not feel like he can catch up to the imām, then he follows the imām and makes up a rakʿa in its place after the salām of his imām.  If the follower does not pay attention to prostrating, is crowded or dozes off until the imām stands in the following unit (rak’ah), then he prostrates, if he feels he will catch the imām before he makes rukūʾ.  Otherwise, he leaves the prostration and follows the imām and then makes up another rakʿa as well.  Whenever he has to make up a rakʿa he does not have to prostrate [after the salām] unless he is in doubt about the rukūʾ or prostration.  

If approached by a scorpion or snake

If one is approached by a scorpion or snake and kills it, then he owes nothing, unless he spent a long time or turns his back to the qibla, in which case he cuts off the prayer.  If a person doubts whether he is in witr or the second rakʿa of shafiʾ, he should consider it to the be the second rak’ah of shafiʾ, prostrate after the Salām, and then stand for witr.  The one who unintentionally speaks between shafiʾ and witr owes nothing. 

If it was intentional, then it is disliked, and he still owes nothing.  The one who does not catch at least one unit (rak’ah) with the imām should not prostate with him, whether a qablī or baʾdī.  If he prostrates with the imām, then his prayer is invalid.  If he catches a complete rakʿa or more with the imām, he prostrates the qablī with the imām and delays the baʾdī until he finishes his own prayer, and then prostrates it after the Salām. 

Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

If he intentionally prostrates with the imām, then his prayer is invalid.  If he prostrated unintentionally then he prostrates after the Salām.  

If the follower makes a mistake after the Salām of the imām, then he is like an individual praying alone.  If the follower who was late owes a baʾdī due to the imām and a qablī due to his own mistake, the qablī will suffice for him.  If one forgets a rukūʾ and remembers it while in prostration, he must return to the standing position.

It is recommended that he recite a portion of the Qur’ān, perform the rukūʾ and then prostrate after the Salām.  If a person forgets one prostration, and remembers it after standing, he must return to the sitting and perform the missed prostration. 

This is unless he had performed the sitting before he stood up, in which case he would not repeat the sitting.  Whoever forgot two prostrations should fall straight into prostration without sitting.  In all of these cases he prostrates after the salām. 

Remembering prostration after rising

If he remembers the prostration after raising his head from the rukūʾ that follows it, he:

  1. Continues in his prayer
  2. Does not return
  3. Voids the deficient rakʿa
  4. Adds a rakʿa at the end building [upon what he has already done]
  5. Prostrates before the Salām, if the mistake was from the first two rakʿas and he remembered it after completing the third rakʿa.
  6. Prostrates after the Salām if it was not from the first two rakʿas, or was from them but he remembered before completing the third rakʿa.  This is because the sūra and the sitting were not missed.

Whoever says the final Salām while in doubt about the completion of the prayer, his prayer is invalid.  The rules of sahw (forgetfulness) in make-up prayers are the same as in the prayers made on time.  The rules of forgetfulness in the nāfila prayer are the same as in the obligatory prayer except in six matters:

  1. The fātiḥa
  2. Sūra
  3. Silent recitation
  4. Audible recitation
  5. Adding a rakʿa
  6. Forgetting some of the pillars of the prayer if a long time has passed

So, whoever forgets the fātiḥa in the nāfila and remembers it after the rukūʾ he continues on in his prayer and he prostrates before the Salām.  This is in contrast to the farḍ prayer where he would void that rakʿa, add another rakʿa and continue. 

His prostration would be according to what we mentioned about the person who forgot a prostration.    If a person forgets the sura, the audible recitation, or the silent recitation in the nāfila and remembers after the rukūʾ and he does not owe a prostration, which differs from the farḍ prayer. 

Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

If a person stands for a third rakʿa during a nāfila, he returns if he remembers before completing the rukūʾ and prostrates after the Salām.  If he completed the third rakʿa, he should continue and add a fourth rakʿa and prostrate before the Salām. This differs from the farḍ where he would return as soon as he realizes and prostrate after the Salām.  

If a person forgets a pillar from the nāfila prayer, such as rukūʾ or sujūd, and does not remember until he has said Salām and a long time has passed, he does not have to repeat the prayer.  This differs from the farḍ prayer in which case he would repeat it indefinitely.  Whoever cuts off a nāfila prayer intentionally or leaves a rakʿa or sajda from it intentionally, must repeat it indefinitely. 

Yawning in prayer owes nothing

Whoever yawns in his prayer owes nothing, unless he pronounces a letter.  If an imām makes a mistake by either subtracting or adding something, the follower must say subḥān Allāh.  If your imām stands after completing only two rakʿas, then say subḥān Allah. 

However, if he seperates from the ground then follow him.  If he sits in the first or third rakʿa, then stand and do not sit with him.  If he prostrates once and leaves the second prostration, say subḥān Allah and do not follow him.  This is unless you fear that he will go into the following rukūʾ, in which case you would follow.  Then you would not sit with him afterwards neither in the second or fourth rakʿa. 

Once he says the final Salām, then stand and add another rakʿa in place of the one he missed building on what was done and then prostrate before the Salām.  If you were a congregation, the best thing would be for you to choose one amongst you to complete the prayer.

Mukhtasar al-Akhdari English

If the imām adds a third prostration, then say subḥān Allah and do not prostrate with him.  If the Imām stands up for a fifth rakʿa, those who are sure of it being needed or are in doubt must follow him.  The ones who are sure of it being an addition must sit.  If the first group sits or the second stands, the prayer is invalid. 

If the imām says the Salām before completing the prayer, those following him must say subḥān Allāh.  If he believes them he should return to complete his prayer, and then prostrate after the salam.  If he is sure of the prayer being complete, he should follow his certainty and leave the two just witnesses.  This is unless there are many people behind him [saying subḥān Allāh] then he should leave his certainty and go with them.      

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