MYSTERIES OF THE SOUL – Book Sample
The Nature and Essence of the Human Soul – MYSTERIES OF THE SOUL
Scholars of various schools of thoughts ((Not the four famous schools of fiqh (jurisprudence) but rather leading scholars and thinkers who represent various unorthodox sects, such as the Mu’tazilites, Rafidhites and philosophers. They have expressed various incorrect views and opinions on this and other subjects of aqidah.)) differ greatly regarding the nature and essence of the soul (nafs). Is it a part of the physical body or a non-essential characteristic ((In Arabic, ‘aradh. According to the terminology of the philosophers, it refers to things which cannot exist independently, like color, smell, length, etc.)) of it? Is it an entity consigned to dwell within the physical body, or is it an independent essence in itself? Is the nafs the same as the ruh (spirit)? Finally, what happens to the soul upon death? Is it confined to its body and its grave? If not, is it free to move about in the unseen spiritual world and on the earth? ((See Kitab al-Ruh, p. 2 72.))
Regarding this subject, leading theologians of various sects have put forward a host of conflicting opinions. It would be beyond the scope of the present work to examine each and every view put forward by the various scholars; however, a brief mention of some of their opinions regarding this issue is necessary. The correct view ((It is “correct” in the sense that it is not contrary to the beliefs of ah! alsunnah, literally, “the people of the established way or path” (those who sincerely and firmly adhere to the Qur’an and the authentic sunnah as their complete way of life). Indeed, there is little authentic information about the rub. Referring to the rub Allah says in the Qur’an: “And you have not been given knowledge except for a little. ” Surah alIsra’, 17:85. (ed.))) is given, supported by sound reason and statements from the Qur’an and the authentic sunnah.
Various Incorrect Theories
According to the theologian, Abul-Hasao al-Ash’ ari, scholars differed regarding the rub (spirit), nafs (soul) and bayah (life force). Al-Nadhdham, one of the leaders of the Mu’tazilah,5 is attributed with having said that the nafs is the form of the rub. He further claimed that the rub is alive (i.e., animate) and exists independently. In contrast to his view, other scholars alleged that the rub is a non-essential characteristic of the human being, unable to exist independently of itself. Still others opposed both of these views and claimed that it is not known what the rub is ” an essential characteristic or a non-essential characteristic.
The proponents of another theory claimed that man consists of a particular form contained within a physical body; however, they…..
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