Sultan and Islam
SULTAN AND ISLAM
The history of Islam began in 610 AD. The death of the Prophet of Islam in 632 AD was followed by the age of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. There were four caliphs in this period which lasted for about thirty years.
The appointment of each of these four caliphs took place in different ways. This shows that the appointment of the caliph or political leader is not based on divine commandment, rather it is based on ijtihad. This is why there is no single standard model for the appointment of political leader.
The decision of appointing a political leader is based on ijtihad while taking care of the prevailing circumstances.
After the age of the Rightly Guided Caliphs came the age of Amir Muawiyah (602-680 A.D.), a companion of the Prophet.
The dynastic model of government was adopted during the period of the rule of Amir Muawiyah.
There were a large number of companions alive at this time, but they all accepted the dynastic model of governance. Afterwards this model worked throughout the political history of Islam.
The Companions (Sahaba), Followers of the Companions (Tabieen), Followers of the Followers (Taba Tabieen), traditionalists, jurists, and ulama—all accepted the dynastic model.
Several Muslim governments were established on this model in Islamic history, for instances in the period of the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Ottoman and Mughal empires. All these empires were based on the dynastic model.
Also, all those people who were known as aslaf (Muslims of the early
It would not be wrong to say that if the position of the government is that of a political empire, the position of traditions is that of a non-political empire. period) practically accepted this model.
The reason was that this model had become an accepted model as a result of the historical process.
It is this dynastic model which is in place in Arab states in present times.
Among the Muslim ulama, manhaj as-salaf (the pattern of early Muslims) is accepted as the right method.
All the ulama of this period accepted the dynastic model as the right model (durust manhaj).
No notable scholar staged a revolt against dynastic rule. During the Abbasid period, the ulama decreed by consensus that revolting against Muslim rulers was unlawful.
The renowned traditionalist Imam Nawawi (d. 1277 AD), explaining some traditions of the Prophet representing manhaj as-salaf, writes: ‘Revolting against the rulers or waging war with them is unlawful by the consesnsus of Muslisms, even if the rulers are tyrants and sinners.’ (Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah)