The Attitude of Islam Towards Science and Philosophy
A Translation Of Ibn Rushd’s (Averroes) Famous Treatise Faslul-Al-Maqal Translators Dr Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi Dr Aadil Amin Kak
THE ATTITUDE OF ISLAM TOWARDS SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY
From the Book
Every person who is even briefly acquainted with the story of Islam is aware that the Islamic Ideology and the Islamic worldview provided a most powerful source of inspiration especially for the quest for knowledge during the first few centuries after the Hijra.
The new zeal produced a radical transformation in the Arabian Peninsula, as well as among the countries where Islam took firm root in the immediately succeeding centuries.
The rich contributions that Islam has made in the various disciplines to a great extent served as the basis for the development of modern science and philosophy.
The injunctions of the Qur’an and the teachings of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) laid great stress on the acquisition of knowledge and developing the spirit of inquiry.
The Muslims strictly followed these precepts and spared no pains to acquire, preserve and spread knowledge.
As a result of their vigorous and dedicated efforts, an outlook that can be called truly scientific was developed. This, in itself, is the most valuable service of the Muslims to human civilization.
Syed Amir Ali in ‘The Spirit of Islam’ mentions: “The doctrine of the trinity in unity, of the three ‘Nature’ in one, of original sin, of transubstantiation, all gave rise to a certain intellectual tension.
The dogmas of the Church accordingly required some such ‘solvent’ as scholasticism before science and free thought could find their way into Christendom.
In Islam the case was otherwise; with the exception of the unity of God- the doctrine of ·Tauhid, which was the foundation of Mohammed’s Church – there was no dogma upon which insistence was placed in any such form as to compel Reason to hold back its acceptance.
The doctrine of ‘origin and return’.- mabda and maad, ‘coming (from God) and returning (to Him)’- and of the moral responsibility of man, was founded·on the conception of a Primal Cause- the Originator of all things.
In the Prophet’s time, as well as under the Khulfah Rashidin (The Truthful Caliphs), no doubt, free independent inquiry was naturally, and perhaps rightly, discouraged.
No doubt questioning was silenced by terror of authority, and if the teacher was unable to answer the question, the inability was avowed.in all humility… The greatest of the philosophers were al-Kindi, al-Farabi, ibn-Sina, lbn-Baja, lbn-Tufail, and lbn-Rushd.