The Formation of the Islamic Understanding of Kalāla in the Second Century AH (718–816 CE)

  • Book Title:
 The Formation Of The Islamic Understanding Of Kalala
  • Book Author:
Pavel Pavlovitch
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  • Foreword ix
  • List of Witnesses, Tables, Matn-Composites, and Isnād Diagrams xiv
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Abbreviated Book and Journal Titles xvii
  • Abbreviated Personal Names of Transmitters in the Isnād
  • Diagrams xvii
  • Vicissitudes of Interpretation 1
    • Kalāla in the Quran 1
    • Was the Meaning of Kalāla Known in the Jāhiliyya and Early Islam? 5
    • How to Make Sense of Kalāla? 7
    • Western Research on Kalāla 9
    • Methodology 22
      • Isnād-cum-Matn Analysis (ICMA) 22
      • Ḥadīth as Fictional Narrative 49
      • Sources of Kalāla Traditions 52
      • Matn-Composites, Isnād Diagrams, and Reconstructed Versions 54
  • The Meaning of Kalāla is Unknown 57
    • Cluster 1: Kalāla is One of the Three Most Important Things in this World 57
    • Cluster 2: Kalāla and the Finest Camels 70
    • Cluster 3: The Khamr-cum-Kalāla Tradition 86
    • Cluster 4: ʿUmar Tells Ibn ʿAbbās that He Did not Issue a Decree about Kalāla 115
    • Cluster 5: ʿUmar Tells Ibn ʿAbbās, Ibn ʿUmar, and Saʿīd b. Zayd that He Did not Say Anything about Kalāla 127
    • Cluster 6: ʿUmar and the Presence of Captives in Medina 137
    • Cluster 7: Ibrāhīm al-Nakhaʿī’s One-Thing Narrative 143
    • Cluster 8: Nothing Perplexed the Companions of the Prophet as Did
  • The Meaning of Kalāla is Hidden 162
    • Cluster 9: ʿUmar’s Suppressed Statement about Kalāla 162
    • Cluster 10: ʿUmar Erases His Decree about Grandfather and Kalāla 181
    • Cluster 11: ʿUmar, Kalāla, and the Ominous Snake 199
    • Cluster 12: Kalāla Was not Made Clear to ʿUmar 214
    • Conclusion 244
      • The Historical Development of the Intermediate Traditions 244
      • The Relationship between the Undefined and the Intermediate Traditions 247
      • ʿAbd al-Razzāq the Exegete 250
  • The Meaning of Kalāla is Defined in the Summer Verse 252
    • Cluster 13: The Medinese Version of the Kalāla-cum-Summer-Verse Tradition 252
    • Cluster 14: The Basran Version of the Kalāla-cum-Summer-Verse Tradition 261
    • Cluster 15: The Kufan Version of the Kalāla-cum-Summer-Verse Tradition 292
    • Cluster 16: The Prophet Defines Kalāla 307
    • ʿUmar, Ḥafṣa, and the Prophet: Between Masoretic Elucidation and Halakhic Exegesis 317
    • Cluster 19: ʿUmar’s Recollection about Kalāla 341
    • Cluster 20: The Prophet and the Importunate Man 355
    • Conclusion 362
      • Kalāla and the Codification of the Quran 365
      • Pre-Canonical vs. Canonical Kalāla 368
  • Kalāla is Defined in adīth 376
    • The Kufan Definition of Kalāla 376
    • Hijazi Doctrines about Kalāla 392
    • Cluster 26: The Struggle over the Kufan Definition of Kalāla 427
    • Cluster 27: The Polemical Encounter between Yazīd b. Hārūn and ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Ṣanʿānī 441
    • Cluster 28: Dispensing with the Quran 458
    • Cluster 29: Kufan Inroads in Basra 476
    • Conclusion 484
  • Summary and Conclusion 491
    • The Historical Development of the Kalāla Narratives 491
    • The Chronology of Kalāla Traditions: Specific Motifs and Attribution to Early Authorities 496
    • *Kalla or Kalāla? 508
    • The Breach between the Quran and the Sunna 513
    • Kalāla and Varieties of Exegesis 516
    • Methodological Challenges and Research Perspectives 517
  • Appendix 1. Chronology of Kalāla Traditions 520 The Undefined Traditions 520
  • The Intermediate Traditions 522
  • Kalāla and the Summer Verse 524
  • Traditions including Various Definitions of Kalāla 526
  • Appendix 2. Reconstructed Versions (RVs) of Kalāla Traditions 532
  • Bibliography 547
  • Index of Names and Subjects 60
  • Index of Quranic Verses 577
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Cluster 3: The Khamr-cum-Kalāla Tradition

Unlike the short kalāla traditions analyzed in the previous two sections, in the present section I analyze a longer narrative that has two clearly distinguishable parts. Both take the form of a saying attributed to ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb. First, he addresses the Islamic prohibition of wine; second, he mentions kalāla as one of the three things that the Prophet should have clarified before his death. For convenience, I shall refer to the entire narrative as the ‘khamr-cum-kalāla tradition.’

As I analyze the matn, I shall refer to ‘the khamr section’—that is, the part of the matn in which ʿUmar discusses the prohibition of wine and the products for its production, and the ‘kalāla section’—that is, the part of the matn describing the three things that ʿUmar wished to have known from the Prophet.

Insofar as the latter section does not deal exclusively with kalāla, but mentions usury and the inheritance of the grandfather, I shall also refer to it as ‘the three-thing section.’

Isnād diagram KU-3 shows a complex isnād structure that branches out above the Medinese traditionist Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Anṣārī (d. 143–4/760–2). It includes four key figures—namely, ʿAbdallāh b. Idrīs b. Yazīd al-Awdī, Isḥāq

b. Rāhwayh, Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Qaṭṭān, and Ibn ʿUlayya, and three single lines of transmission. If the matns of the key figures agree entirely or in part, this will indicate that they are PCLs who received their respective traditions from a common source, which would be Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd al-Anṣārī. In the following, I analyze the traditions that converge on each individual key figure. I shall treat then the single-strand isnāds in a separate subsection.

The Transmissions through ʿAbdallāh b. Idrīs b. Yazīd al-Awdī

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