THE QURAN IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
  • Book Title:
 The Quran In English Translation
  • Book Author:
F. Malik
  • Total Pages
285
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THE QURAN IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION – Book Sample

CONTENTS – THE QURAN IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION

  1. AL-FATIHA – THE OPENING ……….. 1
  2. AL-BAQARAH – THE COW ……….. 1
  3. A’LAY IMRAN – THE HOUSE OF IMRAN …….. 22
  4. AN-NISA’ – WOMEN …………. 28
  5. AL-MA’IDAH – THE TABLE………… 41
  6. AL-AN’AM – LIVESTOCK………… 51
  7. AL-A‘RAF – THE HEIGHTS ……….. 61
  8. AL-ANFAL – THE SPOILS ………… 72
  9. AT-TAUBA – REPENTANCE ……….. 79
  10. Yunes – JONAH ………….. 87
  11. HUD – THE WARNER ………… 93
  12. Yusuf – JOSEPH………….. 99
  13. AR-RA‘D -THUNDER………… 105
  14. ABRAHAM – ABRAHAM ……….. 106
  15. AL-HIJR – THE ROCK ………… 109
  16. AN-NAHL – BEES…………. 112
  17. AL-ISRA’ – ISRAEL ………… 118
  18. AL-KAHF – THE CAVE ………… 123
  19. MARY – MARY ………….. 129
  20. Al-TAHA– [MOSES and PHAROAH] ……… 132
  21. AL-ANBIYA’ – THE PROPHETS ………. 137
  22. AL-HAJJ – THE PILGRIMAGE ………. 141
  23. AL-MU’MINUN – THE BELIEVERS………. 146
  24. AN-NUR – THE LIGHT ………… 149
  25. AL-FURQAN – THE CRITERION ………. 154
  26. ASH-SHU‘ARA………….. 157
  27. AN-NAML – ANTS …………. 161
  28. AL-QASAS – STORIES ………… 165
  29. AL-‘ANKABUT – THE SPIDER ………. 170
  30. AR-RUM – ROME…………. 173
  31. LUQMAN …………… 178
  32. AS-SAJDAH – WORSHIP ……….. 180
  33. AL-AHZAB- THE TRENCH (COALITION)…….. 181
  34. SABA – SHEBA (or the Angels) ………. 189
  35. FATIR – THE CREATOR……….. 192
  36. YA-SIN…………… 194
  37. AS-SAFFAT – IN RANKS……….. 197
  38. SUAD……………. 200
  39. AZ-ZUMAR………….. 203
  40. AL-MU’MIN / GHAFIR – THE BELIEVER/FORGIVER…… 207
  41. 41       HA-M’IM         AS-SAJDAH          /         FUSSILAT          –         Ha-MIM         ON WORSHIP/DECIPHERMENT ………… 211
  42. ASH-SHURA – CONSULTATION ………. 213
  • AZ-ZUKHRUF – LUXURY ……….. 216
  • AD-DUKHAN – SMOKE………… 219
  • AL-JATHIYA – CROUCHING ……….. 220
  • AL-AHQAF – THE DUNES ……….. 222
  • MUHAMMAD………….. 224
  • AL-FATAH – VICTORY………… 226
  • AL-HUJURAT – THE APARTMENTS …….. 231
  • QAF ……………. 232
  • AZ-ZARIYAT – WINNOWING WINDS…….. 234
  • AT-TUR – THE MOUNT ……….. 235
  • AN-NAJM – THE STAR ………… 236
  • AL-QAMAR – THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON ……. 238
  • AR-RAHMAN – THE MERCIFUL ………. 239
  • AL-WAQI‘AH – THE INEVITABLE………. 241
  • AL-HADID – IRON …………. 242
  • AL-MUJADALAH – THE PLEADING WOMAN ……. 244
  • AL-HASHR – BANISHMENT ……….. 245
  • AL-MUMTAHINAH – THE EXAMINATION …….. 247
  • AS-SAFF – THE BATTLE ARRAY ………. 248
  • AL-JUMU’AH – FRIDAY ………… 249
  • AL-MUNAFIQUN – THE HYPOCRITES …….. 250
  • AT-TAGHABUN – BARGAINING ………. 251
  • AT-TALAQ – DIVORCE ………… 251
  • AT-TAHRIM – EXCOMMUNICATION ……… 252
  • AL-MULK …………… 253
  • AL-QALAM ………….. 254
  • AL-HAQQAH ………….. 256
  • AL-MA‘ARIJ ………….. 257
  • NUH – NOAH ………….. 257
  • AL-JINN – THE GENIE SPIRITS………. 258
  • AL-MUZZAMMIL – FOLDED IN GARMENTS……. 259
  • AL-MUDDATHTHIR – THE ENVELOPED ONE ……. 260
  • AL-QIYAMAH ………….. 261
  • AD-DAHR …………… 262
  • AL-MURSALAT – THE WINDS ………. 262
  • AN-NABA’…………… 263
  • AN-NAZI‘AT ………….. 264
  • ‘ABASA…………… 265
  • AT-TAKWIR………….. 266
  • AL-INFITAR ………….. 266
  • AL-MUTAFFIFIN …………. 266
  • AL-INSHIQAQ ………….. 267
  • AL-BURUJ – THE CONSTELLATIONS …….. 267
  • AT-TARIQ – MORNINGSTAR ………. 268
  • AL-A‘LA – GOD ON HIGHEST ………. 268
  • AL-GHASHIYAH – THE PALL ………. 269
  • AL-FAJR – DAYBREAK ………… 269
  • AL-BALAD – THE COUNTRYSIDE (HOMELAND)…… 270
  • ASH-SHAMS – THE SUN……….. 270
  • AL-LAYL – NIGHT …………. 270
  • AD-DUHA – MORNING LIGHT ………. 271
  • AL-INSHIRAH – RELIEF ……….. 271
  • AT-TEEN – THE FIGTREE……….. 271
  • AL-‘ALAQ – THE CLOT ………… 271
  • AL-QADR – THE POWER (or FATE)……… 272
  • AL-BAYYINAH – EVIDENCE……….. 272
  • AZ-ZILZAL – THE EARTHQUAKE ………. 272
  • AL-‘ADIYAT – THE CHARGING STEEDS …….. 272
  • AL-QARIAH – THE DISASTER (JUDGEMENT DAY) …… 273
  • AT-TAKATHUR – RIVALRY ……….. 273
  • AL-ASR – EVENTIDE ………… 273
  • AL-HUMAZAH – THE SLANDERER ……… 273
  • AL-FEEL – THE ELEPHANT ……….. 274
  • AL-QUREYSH – THE QUREISH TRIBE …….. 274
  • AL-MA‘UN – ALMSGIVING ……….. 274
  • AL-KAUTHAR – THE BLESSINGS or THE FOUNT OF PLENTY… 274
  • AL-KAFIRUN – THE INFIDELS………. 274
  • AN-NASR – DIVINE AID……….. 275
  • AL-LAHAB – THE FLAME ……….. 275
  • AL-IKHLAS – SINCERITY ……….. 275
  • AL-FALAQ – DAWN………… 275
  • AN-NAS – MANKIND………… 275

Background

The Qur’an, (Koran) meaning recitation, is the sacred book of Islam. According to Muslim tradition, it was revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad in separate revelations over the major portion of his life at Mecca and at Medina. The Qur’an was probably compiled as a single volume under the third caliph, Uthman, who appointed a committee (651-52). The internal organization of the Qur’an is somewhat ad hoc. Revelations consisted of verses (ayat) grouped into 114 chapters (surah, plural – suwar).

The arrangement of the chapters is mechanical: the first, al-Fateha or “the Opening, is a short prayer exalting God that has become an essential part of all Islamic liturgy and prayer. The rest are graded generally by length, from longest to shortest. It is impossible to know chronological order of the chapters from their order in the Quran.

Some of the suwar begin with letters of the Arabic alphabet, as though meant to be numbered, others do not. Some suwar of the Qur’an refer or allude to religious and historical events but seldom provide comprehensive accounts. God in the Qur’an speaks in the first person. Being the verbatim Word of God, the text of the Qur’an is valid for religious purposes only in its original Arabic, cannot be modified, and is not translatable, although the necessity for non-Arabic interpretations is recognized.

The reader should be aware that the Quran, like the holy books of the Jews and Christians, is interpreted differently by different persons. Some insist on a strict literal interpretation, while others try to adapt the intention of the Quran to modern society. One source of difference is the method of “abrogation” used to resolve conflicts in the text. Though some scholars deny it, most Muslims recognize that the Quran includes many apparently contradictory verses, created at different times. These are harmonized by a method of precedence or “abrogation.” The traditional view is that later verses abrogated earlier ones. This is the almost unanimously accepted view. Others argue that earlier verses take precedence over later ones.

A brief History of Islam

Different Suwar of the Quran allude to historical events associated with early Islam, and an understanding of these events and of the context of Islam is essential for understanding the Qur’an.

Pre-Islam – Before the advent of Islam, the different tribes of Arabia followed different religions. Some were Nestorian or Monophysite Christians, some had adopted Judaism and others practiced various pagan and animistic beliefs. The bull-God Sin was worshipped in parts of Arabia since ancient times, and some speculate that Sin was the origin of the golden calf erected by the Hebrews at Mount Sinai. The kingdom of Yemen (Himyar) had converted to Judaism for a time and was later conquered by Abbysinian Christians. In Yathrib, now Medina, Jews predominated until they were eclipsed by two Christian tribes, the Aws and Khaarazi. There were also Jewish towns elsewhere, such as Khaybar.

Many tribes had cults associated with rocks, including the black Kaaba stone in Mecca, which was an important shrine and the site of an annual pilgrimage. The Quraysh tribe had won the right to administer the Ka’aba stone and the pilgrimage to it in Mecca. There were also, according to tradition, a group of Hanifah, people who were dissatisfied with the pagan worship but did not adopt either Judaism or Christianity. In Islam, the period before the coming of Muhammad and Islam, is known as the Jahiliyah, the time of ignorance.

The Rise of Islam – Muhammad, a prophet astute in statecraft and military strategy and an inspired statesman, changed the history and destiny of Arabia and of much of the world. He was born about 570 to the Banu Hashim family, reputable merchants in the tribe of Quraysh in Mecca. According to tradition, he was a penniless orphan who married Khadija, the widow of a rich merchant, somewhat older than himself. He probably engaged in trade, and is said  by some to have had responsibilities in                                                connection with the Ka’aba stone.

When he was about forty years old he began preaching a new religion, eventually meeting the opposition of Meccan oligarchy. Initally, Muhammad made few converts and many enemies. His first converts were Khadija, Ali (who became the husband of Fatima), and Abu Bakr. From about 620, Mecca became actively hostile, since much of its revenues depended on its pagan shrine, the Kaaba, under the protection of the Quraysh, and an attack on the existing Arab religion was an attack on the prosperity of Mecca.

Following the death of Khadija in 621, Muhammad married eleven other women. Tradition relates that he and his followers were invited to the town of Yathrib by Jewish and Christian tribes after they were no longer welcome in Mecca. In 622, the first year of the Muslim calendar, they set out on the Hijra, the emigration to Yathrib, later renamed Medina, meaning “the city” where Muhammad concluded a treaty with the tribes of Medina. A large number of Medinans, known as the Ansar (helpers), were attracted to Muhammad’s cause. According to several sources, early versions of Islamic practice included Jewish practices such as the fast of Yom Kippur and prayer to Jerusalem, perhaps influenced by the Jews of Medina. These were eventually dropped, and the direction of prayer was turned to Mecca.

In 624 Muhammad learned of a war party of the Quraysh, who were setting out to Medina to avenge the apparenly accidental death of one Hadrami, a relative of the leader of the Quraysh. Muhammad and his army, aided by the ansar auxiliaries, rode out to meet them at Badr. This battle, related in the Quran, is often called the first battle of Islam, but in fact there had been several skirmishes before Badr. Despite the numerical superiority of the Qurayshites, the Battle of Badr was apparently a clear victory for Muhammad. The Quraysh lost about 70 warriors and leaders and 70 captured (these “round” numbers may be historical conventions) out of a fighting force of about a thousand.

The Qurayshites prepared better for the battle of Uhud, fought in the following year. They gathered a force of some 3,000 men, including a strong cavalry contingent led by Khalid Ibn Walid, later a famus general of Islam. The battle was fought in the valley of Aqiq, north of Yathrib (Medina) in the shadow of Mount Uhud. Though the Muslims had the initial advantage, they fell to looting the camp of the Meccans and abandoned a good archery position in the high ground. This allowed Khalid ibn Walid to save the day for the Qurayshites and inflict heavy losses on the Muslims. Tradition relates that the Muslims lost 70 men in this battle. Uhud is often called the second battle of Islam, because it is the second battle referred to in the Quran, or perhaps because it was the second Ghazwa. A Ghazwa is a large scale raid that was led by Muhammad in person.

Muhammad believed firmly in his position as last of the prophets and as successor of Jesus. Therefore, he seems at first to have expected that the Jews and Christians would welcome him and accept his revelations, but he was soon disappointed. Medina had a large Jewish population that controlled most of the wealth of the city, and a portion of them at least refused to give their new ruler any kind of religious allegiance. Muhammad, after a long quarrel, appropriated much of their property, and destroyed two Jewish tribes, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah. Muhammad fought the Banu Nadir and expelled them from Meccah. According to tradition, in 627, remnants of the Banu Nadir instigated the formation of a large alliance (Ahzab) of tribes including the Quraysh, the Banu Quraiza and others and mounted an attack on Medina with a force of about 20,000. Muhammad and his followers constructed a trench around Medina as a part of its fortification, purposely making one section narrower than the rest, so that the Meccan attackers would try to cross the trench at that point. This formed a convenient trap which resulted in the death of many Meccans. Unable to cross the trench, the Meccans besieged Medina. Medina was saved by a miracle reminiscent of the destruction of Senacharib before Jerusalem. After 27 days of siege, according to tradition, God sent a piercing blast of the cold east wind.

The enemy’s tents were torn up, their fires were put out, the sand and rain beat in their faces. Terrified by the portents, they broke camp and lifted the siege.

In 628, Muhammad and his followers set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and met the Quraysh tribe at Hudaybiyeh, where the Quraysh had assembled to block the pilgrimage. Instead of fighting, the enemies concluded a treaty and the Muslims agreed not to make the pilgrimage that year. Instead, they turned on the Jews of the town of Khaybar, who were now no longer protected by the Quraysh, and attacked and subjugated the city.

By 630, Muhammad and the Muslims were strong enough to attack and conquer Mecca, despite the treaty, alleging that the Quraysh had violated the treaty first. The Meccans were forced to convert to Islam, and the powerful Quraish and Umayya tribes were incorporated into the Islamic leadership by giving members of their leaders, especially Uthman, prominent positions in the military and government. By this time pagan Arabia had been converted, and the Prophet’s missionaries, or legates, were active in the Eastern Empire, in Persia, and in Ethiopia.

The new religion evolved into a way of life and recipe for community organization, providing a religious and ideological framework for uniting the Arab tribes, and a social and organizational framework for regulating the unified action of the nomads. The separate tribes had been re-formed into a Muslim-Arab Umma (community). The Qur’an is, among other things, a handbook for rules of war, prescribing the laws of treaties and of booty and commanding the faithful to Jihad, (holy war) against any who interfere with the practice of Islam. In practice, Jihad was often carried out as aggressive war well beyond the borders of Islam.

Muhammad had created powerful force that could now wrest control of much of the subcontinent. In 632, Muhammad died after a short illness in Medina, having taken ill on his final pilgrimage to Mecca. Though he had been an astute statesman, he failed to make any arrangements for his succession. His successors were chosen one after the other from among the family and supporters of Muhammad.

Abu Bakr, father-law of Muhammad, was his first successor. By election, he was given command of the faithful as Khalifa (deputy) of Muhammad. Several tribes living at some distance from Mecca refused to accept his rule, and a war of secession, the Ridda, was fought by Abu Bakr and his able general Khalid ibn al Walid to subjugate these tribes. Muslim successes in these wars and real or perceived threats from the neighboring Persian and Byzantine empires initiated a series of wars of conquest outside the Arabian peninsula. Abu Bakr died in 634, and was replaced by Umar, who completed the initial expansion of Islam.

The Byzantine and Persian empires had been greatly weakened by their struggles with each other and internal decay. The Arabs had perfected a form of warfare suitable for the desert, and for those times and conditions. The swordsmen mounted on camels, and living by raids and foraging were self-sufficient and didn’t concern themselves with supply lines. They could come out of the desert that bordered Persian and Byzantine domains and strike at will. If they failed in battle, they could quickly retreat into the desert, where it was difficult for enemies mounted on horseback to follow. The failing Byzantine and Persian empires could not organize field armies large enough to decisively defeat the Arabs, nor could they provide the manpower for proper stationary defensive fortifications. The Arabs quickly conquered Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt and Persia. The Caliph Umar (or Omar) conquered Jerusalem about 638.

Adaptation Notes

This translation is adapted from http://www.geocities.com\islamicparadise\Translation of Quran.htm. That page refers to http://www.bismilnet.com/alquraan/, which is no longer on the Web. The translation is not literal but intended to convey the sense of the text. It is apparently the translation of F. Malik.

The text in parentheses and italics within the Surahs is explanatory and is not part of the original. In some cases, explanatory text in italics has been retained from the source at the begining of each Surah, to provide historical background.

The peculiarity of numbering sentences at the end of each sentence rather than at the beginning is in the original text and is retained except in the Fatiha – the opening.

For the MidEastWeb translation, diacritic marks were removed to simplify text presentation and to make it easier to search for key words, and the following words were rendered into English, except when they appeared in the name of a Surah (Chapter).

Lord: Arabic “Rabb” is translated in most English translations as “Lord”. It connotes Master, Owner, Sustainer, Provider, Guardian, Sovereign, Ruler, Organizer, Administrator. The Hebrew rough equivalent is “Ribono shel Olam” and is from the same root.

Messenger: The Arabic “Rasool,” a special term for a prophet such as Muhammed, Abraham, Moses and Jesus is translated “messenger” following the general practice.

Pagan: The Arabic “Mushrik” has been translated as “pagan.”

Holy Books: The Arabic “Injeel” has been rendered as “Gospel” in the MidEastWeb adaptation, “Taurat” as “Torah.”

Names of Old and New Testament persons such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Mary are rendered in English.

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