The Revolution Which Toppled the Umayyads: Neither Arab Nor Abbasid

The Revolution Which Toppled the Umayyads
  • Book Title:
 The Revolution Which Toppled The Umayyads
  • Book Author:
Salih Said Agha
  • Total Pages
447
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Contents – THE REVOLUTION WHICH TOPPLED THE UMAYYADS

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • LIST OF FIGURES .. xii
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. xiii
  • INTRODUCTION: ANTICIPATING THIS WORK . xv
  • The Issues .. xv
  • The #Abbāsid Connection and Its Impact on the Primary Arabic Sources—The #Abbāsid Riwāyah .   xv
  • II.1 The #Abbāsid Riwāyah  .   xv
  • 2 The Impact of the #Abbāsid Riwāyah on the Primary
  • Sources .. xxi
  • Modern Scholarship on the Issues . xxv
  • This Book on the Issues . xxxiii
  • NOTE ON CONVENTION . xxxvii
  • PART ONE
  • THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATION AND THE #ABBĀSID CONNECTION
  • PROLOGUE .. 3
  • Genesis: The Founding Fathers . 4
  • CHAPTER ONE: BUKAYR IBN MĀHĀN—THE EVOLUTION
  • OF THE ORGANIZATION (Ca. 105/723—126/744) . 7
  • A Personal Profile .. 7
  • Early Involvement and the Creation of the Khurāsān Chapter . 8
  • The Interim Leaderships of Maysarah al-Nabbāl and Sālim al-A#mā, and Abū #Ikrimah’s Mission as the
  • First Resident Envoy-in-Chief in Khurāsān . 12
  • Bukayr’s Accession as the Fourth Chief of the Organization— First Phase: Remote Management Through Resident
  • Envoys (Ca.105-109/723-728) . 14
  • The Disruption—The Khidāsh Years: Independence of the Khurāsān Chapter (Ca. 109-118/727-737) . 16
  • Second Phase of Bukayr’s Leadership—Regaining Control over the Khurāsān Chapter, The ‘General Assembly’,
  • Restructuring .. 20
  • Shuttle Management and the Maturity of Bukayrism— Asserting the Strategic Independence of the Organization and its
  • Uniqueness on the Proto-Shī#ite Theatre  .    26
  • viii CONTENTS
  • VII.1 The Assertion of the Organization’s Independence in
  • the Context of Zayd ibn #Alī’s Rising .    26
    • Shuttle Pattern and Frequency . 30
  • Was YaÈyā ibn Zayd an Aborted Possibility
  • for a Suitable Ri∙ā?  ..    31
  • Ibrāhīm al-Imām ‘Succeeds’ His Father in the
  • Finest #Abbāsid Tradition  .    33
  • VIII. The Twilight Year and the End—Passing the Torch to
  • Abū Salamah .. 35
  • CHAPTER TWO: ABŪ SALAMAH AL-KHALLĀL— THE TRANSITION FROM BUKAYRISM TO
  • THE NEO-KHIDĀSHIST ABŪ MUSLIMISM (126/744-128/746) 39
  • A Personal Profile, and a Socio-Economic Portrait of the Early Leadership of the Organization . 39
  • In Bukayr’s Shadow—The Expansion and Upgrading of the Organizational Structure of the Khurāsān Chapter . 42
    • A Prominent Founding Father Superficially Reported . 42
    • The Institution of the Three Regional Commands in Khurāsān—the Journey of the Three Black Banners . 44
  • The Succession .. 47
  • Brief Hands-on Phase—Abū Salamah’s Only Trip to
  • Khurāsān as Leader of the Organization . 47
  • Chronological Problems and Abū Muslim’s Involvement . 47
  • The General Political Situation Surrounding the Trip . 49
  • In Khurāsān, a Flourishing Organization Ready to Be Transformed into a Grass-roots Movement . 50
  • CHAPTER THREE: ABŪ MUSLIM AL-KHURĀSĀNĪ—THE HIJACKING OF THE KHURĀSĀN CHAPTER OF THE ORGANIZATION .. 53
  • Roots? .. 53
  • The Kūfan Sojourn/The #Ijlite Connection—
  • What Significance? .. 57
  • The #Abbāsid Connection—A Plausible Scenario  .    67
  • Epilogue .. 71
  • ‘Hijacking’ the Khurāsān Chapter . 72
  • The Revolution .. 75
  • The Role of Transoxania and the Battle for Balkh . 79
  • CHAPTER FOUR: REPERCUSSIONS IN KŪFAH . 87
  • The Irrelevance of al-Khallāl . 87
  • Pseudomanagement by Correspondence . 89
    • Abū Salamah and the Eruption of the Revolution in Khurāsān .. 90
    • Abū Salamah and the First Phases of
  • QaÈãabah’s Campaign . 92
  • CONTENTS  ix
  • I.1.3 Abū Salamah and the Last Phases of
  • QaÈãabah’s Campaign .
  • Al-Khallāl in Twilight—The Affair of MuÈammad ibn Khālid
  • al-Qasrī ..
  • 95
  • Al-Khallāl Resurges into Supreme Relevance .
  • The Regained Legitimacy—The Doctrine of al-Ri∙ā and the Elusive Hāshimiyyah . 99
  • III.2 The Effect of QaÈãabah’s Sudden Demise on the
  • Balance of Power ..
  • III.3 Al-Khallāl Takes Charge .
  • III.4 The Dynamics of the Game Between Abū Muslim and Abū Salamah .. 107
  • CHAPTER FIVE: THE #ABBĀSID COUP AND
  • THE DEMISE OF THE ORGANIZATION .
  • I. A Methodological Interlude . 117
  • II. Abū Salamah’s Search for a Ri∙ā  . 120
  • The #Abbāsid Coup ..
  • III.1 The Unfolding of the Drama According to the
  • #Abbāsid Riwāyah .. 124
  • III.2 Exposing the #Abbāsid Riwāyah and Reconstructing
  • a Plausible Scenario ..
  • The Demise of the Organization .
  • IV.1 In the Aftermath of the Coup—A Precarious
  • Power-Sharing Arrangement . 135
  • IV.2 The Assassination of the Marginalized Loser . 138
  • THE DEMOGRAPHIC BALANCE IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PROVINCE 
  • CHAPTER SIX: CONVERSION IN THE PROVINCE .
  • II. Conversion: Scope, Patterns and Instances . 146
  • II.1 Early Conversion ..
  • II.2 The House of Quãbah and the Transoxanian
  • Connection … .. 146
  • II.3 Conversion South of the Oxus . 154
  • III. The ‘Converters’ .. 157
  • IV. Conversion—A Trojan Horse . 166
  • CHAPTER SEVEN: THE ARABS IN THE PROVINCE . 173
  • Revolutionary ‘Aptitude’—A Question of Motives and Intentions ..
  • II. Revolutionary Ability—A Question of Quantum . 175
  • Arab Immigration to Khurāsān . 177
  • Khurāsān’s Particularism as an Outpost of Arab
  • Settlement .. 177
  • Building up and Maintaining a Stable
  • Demographic Balance . 177
  • The Geographical Dispersion of the Arabs in Khurāsān—A Military Archipelago .. 185
  • The Arab Revolutionary Quanta . 187
  • CHAPTER EIGHT: LITERARY TEXTS AS DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS .. 193
  • Traditions and Other Texts Quoted Verbatim . 193
  • The Crucial Literary Specimen . 200
  • II.1. #Abd al-\amīd ibn YaÈyā’s Letters  .  200
  • II.2 Naßr ibn Sayyār’s Bā”iyyah Poem  .  206
  • An Iranian Para-Islamic Revolutionary Continuum . 212
  • PART THREE
  • A COLLECTIVE PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION— A QUANTITATIVE STUDY
  • CHAPTER NINE: THE DATA—COLLECTION AND METHODOLOGY .. 226
  • The Statistical Base—The Historiographical Base . 226
  • Methodology .. 230
  • II.1 Regional Organizational Perimeters . 230
  • II.2 Perspectives, Measured Groups and Criteria of
  • Measurement.. 231
  • II.3 Definitions .. 231
  • II.4 Methods of Measurement . 235
  • CHAPTER TEN: A COLLECTIVE PROFILE ( I ):
  • ETHNIC IDENTITY .. 239
  • What’s in a Name .. 240
  • Name Recognition .. 245
  • The Ethnic Composition of the Organization . 246
  • The Non-Arabs: Mawālī and Converts . 255
  • CHAPTER ELEVEN: A COLLECTIVE PROFILE ( II ):
  • VISIBILITY AND RECOGNITION . 261
  • Intra-Organization Historiographical Recognition . 261
  • Extra-Organization Historiographical Recognition . 265
  • III. Internal Concordance of the Criteria . 271
  • CHAPTER TWELVE: A COLLECTIVE PROFILE (III): TRIBAL STRUCTURE, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, AND OTHER FEATURES ..
  • I. Tribal Structure .. 274
  • II. Geographical Distribution . 284
  • Other Features ..
  • III.1 The Ethno-Tribal Features of the Open Revolution: The
  • Revolutionary Eruption, and the March West . 294
  • III.2 Conflicting Loyalties . 298
  • CHAPTER THIRTEEN: A COLLECTIVE PROFILE (IV): THE FORMAL LEADERSHIP STRUCTURES IN KHURĀSĀN .
  • I. The ‘General Assembly’ of 120/738 . 303
  • II. The Leadership Structures as Embodied in the Lists . 308
  • II.1 The Board of Nuqabā” . 308
  • II.2 Nuíarā” al-Nuqabā”  .. 313
  • II.3 The Dut  .. 314
  • II.4 Dut al-Dut  .. 315
  • III. Leadership-Base Quantitative Correlation . 316
  • IV. The Destinies of the Leaders . 318
  • EPILOGUE .. 323
  • APPENDIX ONE: PROSOPOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX . 327
  • I. The Kūfah Chapter .. 327
  • II.1 Members Active Mainly in Kūfah and the West . 327
  • II.2 Resident Emissaries to Khurāsān . 334
  • The Khurāsān Chapter .
  • APPENDIX TWO: SPECIAL APPENDIX: INDEX OF
  • STATISTICAL TABLES IN AGHA, “AGENTS” . 334
  • Series I (Kūfah Chapter) .. 380
  • Series II (Khurāsān Chapter) . 381
  • Series III (The Whole Organization) . 382
  • GLOSSARY OF TERMS DEFINED . 384
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 385
  • Primary Sources .. 385
  • Secondary Sources .. 389
  • INDEX .. 395

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