||The Wisdom Of The Throne|
||James Winston Morris, MULLĀ ṢADRĀ SHĪRĀZĪ|
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THE WISDOM OF THE THRONE- Book Sample
THE WISDOM OF THE THRONE
That which exists is either the Reality of Being or something else.
By the Reality of Being we mean That which is not mixed with anything but Being, whether a generality or a particularity, a limit or a bound, a quiddity, an imperfection, or a privation-and this is what is called the “Necessary Being.”13  Therefore we say that if the Reality of Being did not exist, then nothing at all would exist. But the consequence (of this conditional statement) is self· false; therefore, its premise is likewise (false).
As for showing the necessity (of the actual existence) of this Primary Being, this is because everything other than this Reality of Being is either a specific quiddity or a particular being, mixed with privation and imperfection.14
Now every quiddity other than Being (Itself) exists only through Being, not by itself. How (could it exist without Being)?!
For if a quiddity were to be taken by itself, separate from being, that quiddity itself could not even “be” itself, to say nothing of its being existent. Because to affirm something (in this case, “being”) of something else (in this case, a particular quiddity) already presupposes the establishment and being of that other thing. And that being-if it is anything other than the Reality of Being-is composed of Being per se (or “Being qua Being”),15 and of some other particularity.
But every particularity other than Being is (taken by itself) nonexistent or privative. Thus every com-
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