• Book Title:
 Southeast Asian Muslims In The Era Of Globalization
  • Book Author:
Ken MiichiOmar Farouk
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  • List of Tables and Figures x
  • Foreword xi
  • Notes on Contributors xii
  • Introduction 1
  • Ken Miichi and Omar Farouk
  • Globalization of Islamic Education in Southeast Asia 11
  • Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Hamid
  • Introduction 11
  • Globalization and contemporary Southeast Asian Islam 12
  • Islamic education: Its concept and early history 14
  • Globalization of Islamic education in pre-colonial and
  • colonial Southeast Asia 17
  • Globalization of Islamic education in post-colonial Southeast Asia: Comparing Thailand, Indonesia and
  • Malaysia 22
  • Concluding remarks 32
  • Muslim Travellers in a Time of Globalization: Studying
  • Islam in Cairo Among the Maranaos in the Philippines 44
  • Yoriko Tatsumi
  • Introduction 44
  • Ulama in Maranao society 47
  • Studying abroad 48
  • Departure 51
  • Living in Cairo 51
  • Studying Islam 52
  • Returning home 53
  • Seeking knowledge in a time of globalization 55
  • Conclusion 58
  • v
  • vi Contents
  • Ghazwul Fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim
  • Responses to Globalization 61
  • Martin van Bruinessen
  • Globalization perceived as a threat: ghazwul fikri or
  • Arabization? 61
  • Studying Islam in the West: The New Order and its
  • favoured Muslim discourses 63
  • The New Order’s subaltern Muslims: The DDII, campus Islam, the radical underground and their
  • transnational connections 65
  • Arabization, ghazwul fikri and authenticity 68
  • Indonesian Muslims and the quest for authenticity 70
  • Middle East conflicts and their impact in Indonesia 72
  • Reformasi and after: The consolidation of new
  • transnational Islamic movements 74
  • Local responses to globalizing Islam: Cultural resistance in
  • Cirebon 76
  • Some final observations 79
  • The Ulama Network as Conveyor of Islamic World Trends: Connecting Malaysian Politics to the Muslim Ummah Through the Islamic Party of
  • Malaysia (PAS) 86
  • Yuki Shiozaki
  • Introduction: Trans-regional Islamic networks and the nationalization of Islamic activities in the twentieth
  • century 86
  • Historical background of the ulama network
  • in Malaysia 88
  • Pan-Malay nationalism and the trans-regional Islamic
  • network around the 1950s 91
  • To be an al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun type political party and establish ulama leadership: The ulama network
  • connected with the Middle East 95
  • Conclusion: Internationalization and nationalization of
  • Islamic activities after the 1990s 100
  • Appendix: Question wording 101
  • Contents vii
  • Globalization: Issues, Challenges and Responses
  • Among the Moros of the Southern Philippines 106
  • Carmen Abu Bakar
  • Introduction 106
  • Issues relevant to globalization 106
  • Globalization of trade and industries 106
  • Transnational corporations 110
  • Cultural and intellectual rights 112
  • Globalization of labour 114
  • Global telecommunications/Information technologies 116
  • Global campaigns against terrorism 118
  • Challenges 119
  • Discrimination 119
  • Peace and order 122
  • Conclusions: Culture of resistance and pragmatic
  • responses 123
  • Democratization and ‘Failure’ of Islamic Parties in
  • Indonesia 127
  • Ken Miichi
  • ‘Failure’ of Islamic political parties 127
  • Islamization as an aspect of globalization 127
  • What are Islamic parties? 128
  • How did Islamic parties lose in the 2009 election? 130
  • Findings from the opinion survey 132
  • Who are santri? 132
  • Traditionalist and modernist 133
  • Changing Islamic organizations and parties 134
  • Who supports Islamic parties? 136
  • Conclusion: What kind of Islamization is going on in
  • Indonesia? 139
  • Appendix: Question wording 140
  • Globalization and Its Impact on the Muslim Minority
  • in Cambodia 145
  • Omar Farouk
  • Introduction 145
  • The context 147
  •  viii         Contents
  • Background of the Muslims         
  • 151
  •         The Jaheds                                                                                            153
  •         The traditionalists                                                                              154
  •         The Reformists                                                                                    155
  •         The secularists                                                                                     156
  •         The Ahmadiyya                                                                                   156
  •         The return to visibility                                                                      157
  •         Muslim civil society in Cambodia                                                 161
  •         Conclusion                                                                                             166
  • 9             The Peace Process in Mindanao and Its Global Dimension            
  • 172
  •         Datu Michael O. Mastura with the assistance of Ishak       
  •         V. Mastura                                                                                           
  •         A global justice framework                                                              172
  •         The internal–international axis                                                    174
  •         New formulas for RSD in a globalizing system                        177
  •         Interim proposals for compromise                                               178
  •         Geopolitical equations and ‘geoeconomics’                               180
  •         The ICG                                                                                                   182
  •         The IMT                                                                                                  183
  •         The civilian protection component of IMT                                 183
  •         Categorization of ANSAs                                                                  185
  •         Peace agreements as law, IHL and HR                                        187
  •         Conclusion: An invitation to come to terms                              188
  • 10           ‘Red Mosques’: Mitigating Violence Against Sacred Spaces in Thailand and Beyond    
  • 197
  •         Chaiwat Satha-Anand                                                                      
  •         Introduction                                                                                         197
  •         Violence in southern Thailand: A brief history                         199
  •         Mosques in Islam                                                                                201
  •         Mosques as a place for violence: Kru-ze 2004 and                
  •         Al-Furqan 2009                                                                                   202
  •         Kru-ze Mosque, 2004                                                                        205
  •         Al-Furqan Mosque, 2009                                                                 207
  •         Reading violence in sacred space: Malay Muslims, the Thai 
  •         state and globalization                                                                      210
  •         Conclusion: Violence, sacred spaces and globalization         213
  • Contents ix
  • Exploring Gaps Across Religions in Southeast Asia 221
  • Satoru Mikami
  • Introduction 221
  • Gaps in education and household income across religions 222
  • Indonesia 222
  • Malaysia 222
  • The Philippines 225
  • Thailand 226
  • Gaps in opinion across religions 228
  • Support for democracy 228
  • Understanding of the costs and benefits of a free trade
  • system 232
  • Trust in ASEAN 237
  • Religious identity 241
  • Concluding remarks 243
  • Conclusion 253
  • Ken Miichi and Omar Farouk
  • Role of education 254
  • Globalization within Islam 254
  • Democratization and Islam in politics 255
  • Conflict and peace 256
  • Index 257

Globalization of Islamic Education in Southeast Asia


On 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks devastated the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in the United States – an event referred to here- after as 9/11. The United States consequently embarked on a global war on terrorism (GWOT), which has since been reproved by analysts for being over-militaristic, neglecting ideological warfare and uncritically aggregating disparate trends of terrorism (Cf. Kilcullen 2005; Desker and Acharya 2006).

Unfortunately, the United States’ vigorous pursuit of the GWOT has cast a dark shadow on the prospects for intercultural and interreligious understanding between the Western and Muslim worlds.

Towards the end of George W. Bush’s presidency (2001–2009), more informed policy advisors began to recognize the necessity of winning the ‘battle of ideas’ as a pivotal strategy towards accomplishing the GWOT mission (Amr and Singer 2008).

Focus among the policymaking community has shifted to the role of Islamic religious schools in spreading Islamist ideology and maintaining nexuses of radicalism. Although the purported links between formal Islamic instruction and violence-prone religious extremism has been far from established by empirical studies of terrorists’ educational backgrounds, Southeast Asia’s Islamic educational landscape has not been immune from such and similar insinuations (Cf. Yunanto and Hidayat 2005;

Bergen and Pandey 2006; Magouirk and Atran 2008). A study commissioned by the US Air Force, for example, in noting the Malaysian government’s concern that ‘Islamic schools have become a breeding ground for militant Islam’, urged the United States, other concerned countries and international institutions to advocate ‘reform of religious schools to ensure that these schools are able to provide a broad modern education’; such reform is believed to be the ‘key to breaking the cycle of radicalized madrassas [sic] producing cannon fodder for radical and terrorist groups’ (Rabasa 2004, p. 62).

The International Crisis Group’s (ICG) reports on south- ern Thailand and Indonesia also appear to substantiate the proposition that secondary-level Islamic schools serve as a mainstay for militant Islamists (ICG 2009a, 2009b).

Therefore, in the long term, victory in the education battleground has emerged as an indispensable plank of the United States’ patronage of programmes to foster democratic devel- opment, ethno-cultural tolerance, religious pluralism and respect for human rights in the Muslim world.

The present chapter is a modest attempt to redress the jaundiced per- spectives found in writings that deal with Islamic education in Southeast Asia in the GWOT era. In arriving at a conceptual understanding of Islamic education, the author utilizes paradigms deemed endemic to the Islamic epistemological tradition and autochthonous to Muslims of Southeast Asia. As will be seen, Islamic education in Southeast Asia presents a more nuanced picture in both theory and practice than what we normally conjecture from outside the region.

Globalization and contemporary Southeast Asian Islam

In the 1990s, the term ‘globalization’ gained wide currency as a description of the centripetal shrinking of national borders into a ‘global village’ where technologically driven processes of homogenizing eco- nomic, social, cultural, political and even intellectual resources take place wittingly or unwittingly.

Globalization can thus be perceived as a standardizing mechanism at multiple levels of analytical units, with each level reaching uniformity at different stages. Liberal-capitalist ideologues attach deterministic qualities to globalization, often relating it to the concurrent processes of modernization and secularization.

The emergence of Islam as a salient mobilizing factor in world politics in the 1970s and 1980s, emanating mainly from the Middle East, was theoretically problematic as the influence of religion was thought to be inversely related to the latter processes. The declining importance of primordial factors such as ethnicity and religion was held to be a fait accompli in sync with modernization, and later globalization (Pasha and Samatar 1996, pp. 191–192; Fox 2001, pp. 53–59).

Notwithstanding the many facets of globalization of which one may conceive, its economic dimension, as predicated on the market- driven capitalism of hegemonic Western entities, has received the widest prominence in both policymaking and academic circles (Pasha and…

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