||Tafsir Al Qurtubi|
||Abdul Haq Bewley, Imam al-Qurtubi|
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About – Tafsir al-Qurtubi
A 13th-century work of Qur’an exegesis by the classical scholar al-Imam Al-Qurtubi is known as Tafsir al-Qurtubi. Al-Jami’li-Ahkam, Al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, and Tafsir al-Jami are other names for Tafsir al-Qurtubi. While the main goal of this tafsir was to extrapolate legal prohibitions and obligations from the Quran, al-Qurtubi also elaborated on other Quranic verses there were not concerned with jurisprudence. Al-Qurtubi was an adherent of the Islamic jurisprudential school of Imam Malik ibn Anas.
His primary objective in this book was to extrapolate legal prohibitions and rulings from the Qur’anic Ayats, but in doing so, he made some highly insightful comments on the meanings of the Ayat, a close examination of difficult Arabic vocabularies, composition, and rhetoric, and pertinent narrations in the exegesis.
The preface of this book is also detailed and comprises important discussions on the sciences of the Qur’an. Particularly, the guidance from the Qur’an for daily life has been made explicit. This book’s introduction is equally thorough and contains significant debates on the sciences of the Qur’an.
The General Virtues of the Qur’an
This topic is vast and scholars have written many books on it. We will mention some points which point out the excellence of the Qur’an and what Allah has prepared for its people when they are sincere for His sake and act by it. The first aspect of the excellence of the Qur’an that the believer should be aware of is that it is from the Lord of the worlds and is uncreated. It consists of unparalleled words and has a quality that has no equivalent or likes. It comes from the light of Allah’s Essence.
Recitation is the voices of the reciters and their tunes. It is their acquisition, and they are commanded to do it as an obligation in certain acts of worship and it is recommended at many times. They are forbidden to recite it when they are in a state of major impurity and are rewarded for doing it and punished for abandoning it. This is part of what the Muslims, the people of the Truth, agree on. Traditions state that and well known reports prove it.
Reward and punishment are only connected to what is part of what people earn, as will be explained. Were it not that Allah had placed in the hearts of His slaves the strength to bear it so that they can reflect on it, study it and remember what it contains His obedience, worship, and performing His duties and obligations, they would be too weak and would collapse under its weight or perish.
How could they bear it when Allah says, “Had We sent down this Qur’an onto a mountain, you would have seen it hum bled, crushed to pieces out of fear of Allah” ((59:21))? What is the strength of hearts compared to that of the mountains? But Allah provided His slaves with the strength to bear what He wishes as a favour and mercy from Him.
As for traditions about this topic, the first is what at-Tirmidhi transmitted from Abu Sa ‘id that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The blessed and exalted Lord said, ‘If anyone is distracted from asking Me by the Qur’ an and remembering Me, I will give him better than what I give the askers.”‘ He also said, “The excellence of the words of Allah over all other words is like the excellence of Allah over His creation.” (Hasan Gharib Hadith) As-Samarqandi reported in his Musnad that ‘Abdullah said, “The seven long suras are like the Torah. The [suras with] a hundred ayats are like the Gospel. and the Mathanz is like the Zabur. The rest of the Qur’an is excellent.”
In at-Tirmidhi, ‘Ali reported, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘There will be trials like patches of dark night.’ I asked, ‘Messenger of Allah, how can one escape them?’ He replied, ‘The Book of Allah, Blessed and Exalted, contains your history, information about what came before you, news about what will come after you, and correct judgement between you. It is decisive, not a jest. Allah will crush any tyrant who abandons it and Allah will misguide whoever seeks guidance from other than it. It is the Firm Rope of Allah, His Clear Light, and the Wise Reminder. It is the Straight Path.
Passions are not misguided by it, the tongues do not become sated with it, and the god-fearing do not become bored by it. It does not wear out when it is recited a lot and its wonders do not cease. It is that which the jinn did not leave once they had heard it. They said, ”We heard a wonderful Qur’an which guides to right guidance.” ((72:1- 2)) Whoever knows it has knowledge that takes precedence. Whoever utters it speaks the truth. Whoever judges by it is just. Whoever acts by it is rewarded. Whoever calls to it is guided to a straight path. Take it, one-eyed.'” 1
Al-Anbari says in his book, The Refutation of the One who Opposes the Recension of ‘Uthman, transmitting from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas ‘ud, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “This Qur’ an is the Banquet of Allah. Learn as much as you can from His banquet. This Qur’ an is the Rope of Allah, and it is the Clear Light and Useful Healing. It is a protection for the one who clings to it and a rescue for the one who fol lows it. It is not crooked and so puts things straight.
It does not deviate so as to be blamed. Its wonders do not cease. It does not wear out with many repetitions. So recite it. Allah will reward you with ten good deeds for every letter of its recitation. I do not say that Alif-Laam-Miim is a letter nor two alifs, one placing its foot on the other.
You should not stop reciting Surat al-Baqara. Shaytan flees from a house in which Surat al-Baqara is recited. The house most devoid of good is a house empty of the Book of Allah.” In Gharib Abu ‘Ubayd quotes ‘Abdullah (ibn Mas’ud): “This Qur’an is the Banquet of Allah. Whoever enters it is safe.”
He said, “The interpretation of the hadith is that it is a metaphor. The Qur’an is likened to something Allah has prepared for people. They have good and benefits in it. Then He invited them to it.”
Al-Bukhari transmits from ‘Othman ibn ‘Affan that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best of you is the one who learns the Qur’an and teaches it.” Muslim transmitted from Abu Musa that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The metaphor of a believer who recites the Qur’an is that of a citron – its scent is fra grant and its taste is good. The metaphor of a believer who does
l. This is Ibrahim an-Nakha'”i, who had one eye (a’war). not recite the Qur’ an is that of date – it has no scent but its taste is sweet. The metaphor of a hypocrite who recites the Qur’an is that of basil – its scent is fragrant but its taste is bitter. The metaphor of a hypocrite who does not recite the Qur’fill is that of colocynth – it has no scent and its taste is bitter.”
Abu Bakr al-Anbari mentioned that when someone finished the Qur’an, Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman as-Sulami would sit him before him and put his hand on his head and say to him, “You! Fear Allah! I do not know of anyone better than you if you act by what you know.” Ad-Darimi reported that Wahb ad-Dhimari said, “If Allah gives someone the Qur’ an and he stands reciting it at the ends of the night and the ends of the day and acts by what is in it and dies in obedience, on the Day of Rising Allah will raise him up with the angels and Prophets.”
Muslim related that ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Someone who recites the Qur’an and is fluent in it is with the noble pious angels. Someone who recites the Qur’an and stammers in it has two rewards as it is difficult for him.” He will have one reward for the recitation and one reward for the difficulty. The levels of the fluent reciter are all above that because the Qur’an was difficult for him and then he rose beyond that to be like the angels. Allah knows best.
Tafsir al-Qurtubi – Every recitation is equal to goodness
At-Tirmidhi reports from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’Ud that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever recites a letter of the Book of Allah earns a good deed, and each good deed is worth ten like it. I do not say that ‘Alif-lam mim’ is one letter, but that alif is a letter, lam is a letter, and mim is a letter.” (Hasan)
Muslim reported that ‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us while we were in the $ujfa and asked, ‘Which of you would like to go every day to Buthan or to al-‘Aqiq and bring two large-humped she-camels from it without wrongdoing?’ We said, ‘Messenger of Allah, all of us would like that!’ He said, ‘Does not one of you go to the mosque and teach or recite two ayats from the Book of Allah
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